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1. chinaXiv:201807.00030 [pdf]

Toxic metal enrichment characteristics and sources of arid urban surface soil in Yinchuan City, China

ZHANG, Mingxin; LU, Xinwei; SHI, Dongqi; PAN, Huiyun
分类: 地球科学 >> 地球化学

To investigate the environmental quality of the urban surface soil in Yinchuan City, the capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Ningxia), China, we sampled surface soil and measured the concentrations of 8 toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Bi, Ni and V) using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The enrichment characteristics and sources of these toxic metals in the soil were analyzed by the enrichment factor (EF) and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the mean concentrations of these toxic metals in the soil samples were 25.0, 109.1, 16.8, 26.0, 37.2, 2.7, 25.3 and 59.9 mg/kg for Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Bi, Ni and V, respectively, which were 1.2, 1.8, 0.8, 0.4, 3.2, 8.7, 0.7 and 0.8 times of the corresponding background values of Ningxia soil, respectively. The variations of Pb, Zn, Co, Bi and Ni concentrations in the surface soil of Yinchuan were larger than those of the other metals. Our results also showed that the toxic metals investigated in the soil had different enrichment levels. Both Co and Bi were significantly enriched, whereas Cr was only moderately enriched in the soil. There was a deficiency or minimal enrichment of the other toxic metals in the soil. Source analysis results based on the concentration, enrichment characteristics and multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cr, V and Ni originated from a combination of fossil fuel combustion, traffic pollution and natural occurrence. Pb, Cu and Zn were predominantly derived from natural and traffic sources, while Co and Bi primarily originated from construction sources.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量270下载量56 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201807.00031 [pdf]

Potato absorption and phytoavailability of Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in sierozem soils amended with municipal sludge compost

LIU, Zheng; NAN, Zhongren; ZHAO, Chuanyan; YANG, Yang
分类: 地球科学 >> 地球化学

Effects of sludge utilization on the mobility and phytoavailability of heavy metals in soil-plant systems have attracted broad attention in recent years. In this study, we analyzed the effects of municipal sludge compost (MSC) on the solubility and plant uptake of Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in a soil-potato system to explore the mobility, potato plant uptake and enrichment of these five heavy metals in sierozem soils amended with MSC through a potato cultivation trial in Lanzhou University of China in 2014. Ridge regression analysis was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of heavy metals in amended soils. Furthermore, CaCl2, CH3COONH4, CH3COOH, diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used to extract the labile fraction of heavy metals from the amended soils. The results show that the MSC could not only improve the fertility but also increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of sierozem soils. The total concentrations and labile fraction proportions of heavy metals increase with increasing MSC percentage in sierozem soils. In amended soils, Cd has the highest solubility and mobility while Ni has the lowest solubility and mobility among the five heavy metals. The MSC increases the concentrations of heavy metals in the root, stem, peel and tuber of the potato plant, with the concentrations being much higher in the stem and root than in the peel and tuber. Among the five heavy metals, the bioconcentration factor value of Cd is the highest, while that of Ni is the lowest. The complexing agent (DTPA and EDTA) extractable fractions of heavy metals are the highest in terms of phytoavailability. Soil properties (including organic matter, pH and DOC) have important impacts on the phytoavailability of heavy metals. Our results suggest that in soil-potato systems, although the MSC may improve soil fertility, it can also increase the risk of soils exposed to heavy metals.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量186下载量57 评论 0

3. chinaXiv:201807.00035 [pdf]

Rainfall patterns of Algerian steppes and the impacts on natural vegetation in the 20th century

BELALA, Fahima ; HIRCHE, Azziz ; MULLER, Serge D ; Mahmoud, TOURKI; SALAMANI, Mostefa ; GRANDI, Mohamed ; AIT HAMOUDA, Tahar ; Madjid, BOUGHANI
分类: 地球科学 >> 水文学

Since 1960, the steppe regions of North Africa have been subject to an increasing desertification, including the degradation of traditional pastures. The initially dominant species (Artemisia herba-alba, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima) declined and were progressively replaced by other species (Atractylis serratuloides and Salsola vermiculata) that are more tolerant to the new conditions. It is not clear whether these changes are due to anthropogenic reasons or climatic determinism. We have carried out a statistical analysis of the climate to detect putative rainfall changes during the 20th century in the Algerian steppes based on data from 9 meteorological stations, including 2 Saharan stations (El Oued and Touggourt), 3 pre-Saharan stations (Biskra, Laghouat and Ain Sefra) and 4 steppe stations (Djelfa, Saida, Méchéria and El-Bayadh) located in the arid high plains, which represent the bioclimate diversities of the region. Previous studies suggested that significant rainfall changes for the 20th century only had records in the south of the Oran region. Most of the studies, however, looked at restricted territories over limited periods, and did not integrate the rainiest period 2004–2014. Our work is designed to integrate all the longest time series of meteorological data available for the steppe regions of Algeria. Our results confirm the spatial rainfall distribution (significant rainfall changes only recorded in the southwestern region) evidenced by previous studies, and reveal a decreasing rainfall gradient from northeastern to southwestern Algeria. Moreover, the results reveal a trend of significant decrease of rainfall in the southern Oran region, marked by two drought periods in 1980–1985 and 1999–2003. However, with the exception of the southwestern region, rainfall overall has not declined since the beginning of the 20th century. While less marked in other regions, the drought appear to have affected all territories of the Algerian steppe. Consequently, our study implies that the climate was not a leading influence in the on-going degradation of the vegetation cover of steppe landscapes. Such a vegetation evolution thus appears to be have been determined more by human activities than by climate forcing.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量178下载量50 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201807.00036 [pdf]

Eddy covariance measurements of water vapor and energy flux over a lake in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

SUN, Jie; HU, Wenfeng; WANG, Nai'ang; ZHAO, Liqiang; AN, Ran; NING, Kai; ZHANG, Xunhe
分类: 地球科学 >> 水文学

Exploring the surface energy exchange between atmosphere and water bodies is essential to gain a quantitative understanding of regional climate change, especially for the lakes in the desert. In this study, measurements of energy flux and water vapor were performed over a lake in the Badain Jaran Desert, China from March 2012 to March 2013. The studied lake had about a 2-month frozen period (December and January) and a 10-month open-water period (February–November). Latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (Hs) acquired using the eddy covariance technique were argued by measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation. Both fluxes of longwave and shortwave radiation showed seasonal dynamics and daily fluctuations during the study period. The reflected solar radiation was much higher in winter than in other seasons. LE exhibited diurnal and seasonal variations. On a daily scale, LE was low in the morning and peaked in the afternoon. From spring (April) to winter (January), the diurnal amplitude of LE decreased slowly. LE was the dominant heat flux throughout the year and consumed most of the energy from the lake. Generally speaking, LE was mostly affected by changes in the ambient wind speed, while Hs was primarily affected by the product of water-air temperature difference and wind speed. The diurnal LE and Hs were negatively correlated in the open-water period. The variations in Hs and LE over the lake were differed from those on the nearby land surface. The mean evaporation rate on the lake was about 4.0 mm/d over the entire year, and the cumulative annual evaporation rate was 1445 mm/a. The cumulative annual evaporation was 10 times larger than the cumulative annual precipitation. Furthermore, the average evaporation rates over the frozen period and open-water period were approximately 0.6 and 5.0 mm/d, respectively. These results can be used to analyze the water balance and quantify the source of lake water in the Badain Jaran Desert.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量276下载量63 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201807.00037 [pdf]

Performance of different drought indices for agriculture drought in the North China Plain

LIU, Xianfeng; ZHU, Xiufang; PAN, Yaozhong; BAI, Jianjun; LI, Shuangshuang
分类: 地球科学 >> 水文学

The Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), standardized precipitation index (SPI), and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) are used worldwide for drought assessment and monitoring. However, substantial differences exist in the performance for agricultural drought among these indices and among regions. Here, we performed statistical assessments to compare the strengths of different drought indices for agricultural drought in the North China Plain. Small differences were detected in the comparative performances of SPI and SPEI that were smaller at the long-term scale than those at the short-term scale. The correlation between SPI/SPEI and PDSI considerably increased from 1- to 12-month lags, and a slight decreasing trend was exhibited during 12- and 24-month lags, indicating a 12-month scale in the PDSI, whereas the SPI was strongly correlated with the SPEI at 1- to 24-month lags. Interestingly, the correlation between the trend of temperature and the mean absolute error and its correlation coefficient both suggested stronger relationships between SPI and the SPEI in areas of rapid climate warming. In addition, the yield–drought correlations tended to be higher for the SPI and SPEI than that for the PDSI at the station scale, whereas small differences were detected between the SPI and SPEI in the performance on agricultural systems. However, large differences in the influence of drought conditions on the yields of winter wheat and summer maize were evident among various indices during the crop-growing season. Our findings suggested that multi-indices in drought monitoring are needed in order to acquire robust conclusions.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量256下载量51 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201804.01249 [pdf]

Negligible effect of tooth reduction on body mass in Mesozoic birds

ZHOU Ya-Chun; ZHANG Fu-Cheng; Corwin SULLIVAN
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Tooth reduction and loss was an important evolutionary process in Mesozoic birds. Analysis of evolutionary trends in the total mass of the dentition, a function of tooth size and tooth number, has the potential to shed light on the evolutionary pattern of tooth reduction and loss, and on the causes of this pattern. Because modern birds lack teeth, however, they cannot provide the basis for a model that would allow estimation of tooth masses in their Mesozoic counterparts. We selected the teeth of crocodilians as analogues of those in Mesozoic birds because the former are the closest living relatives of the latter, and the two groups are similar in tooth morphology, tooth implantation, and tooth replacement pattern. To estimate tooth masses in Mesozoic birds, we formulated four regression equations relating tooth mass to various linear dimensions, which were measured in 31 intact isolated teeth from eight individual crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis). The results for Mesozoic birds show that dental mass as a proportion of body mass was negligible, at least from the perspective of flight performance, suggesting that selection pressure favoring body mass reduction was probably not the primary driver of tooth reduction or loss. Variations in dental mass among Mesozoic birds may reflect the different foods they ate, and the different types of feeding behavior they displayed.

提交时间: 2018-04-04 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量348下载量160 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201804.01250 [pdf]

A new species of Kubanochoerus (Suidae, Artiodactyla) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China

HOU Su-Kuan; DENG Tao
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

A new specimen of kubanochoeres has been discovered from the Maida locality, Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, and a new species, Kubanochoerus parvus sp. nov., has been created based on the unique partially broken cranium. The new species has a relatively small body size similar to K. massai and K. minheensis. The new species, which possesses relatively wide cheek teeth that resemble those of K. massai and many derived characters that are similar to K. gigas, may represent a separate lineage of the Eurasian kubanochoeres. The horizon of the Maida locality is speculated to be the upper Hujialiang Formation or lower Liushu Formation, and the new species is possibly the youngest known kubanochoere. Based on the comparison of the known kubanochoere, Libycochoerus is suggested to be a synonym of Kubanochoerus, while K. robustus and K. lantienensis are synonyms of K. gigas. There is not sufficient evidence to support the subdivision of K. gigas at the subspecies level. Kubanochoerus gigas is speculated to have derived from more primitive forms that existed earlier than K. massai, and the new species may be derived from K. massai or other earlier forms. Kubanochoerus minheensis, which bears a relatively small body size and rudimentary sub-lophodont dentition, is suggested to be another separate lineage of the Eurasian kubanochoeres.

提交时间: 2018-04-04 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量387下载量196 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201804.01251 [pdf]

Fossil gibbons (Mammalia, Hylobatidae) from the Pleistocene of Chongzuo, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

ZHANG Ying-Qi; JIN Chang-Zhu; WANG Yuan; Alejandra ORTIZ; HE Kai; Terry HARRISON
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Recent fieldwork at Pleistocene cave sites in the Chongzuo area in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region has yielded 33 isolated teeth of fossil hylobatids. Comparisons indicate that the teeth can all be referred to a single species of Nomascus, but the material is insufficient to assign it to a particular species. The molars are slightly larger on average than those of extant species of Nomascus, but unlike contemporary great apes from the Pleistocene of southern China, the hylobatids do not seem to have undergone a change in dental size through time. Nomascus is not present in the Chongzuo area today, but historical records indicate that the genus may have been widely distributed across southern China in the recent past.

提交时间: 2018-04-04 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量372下载量161 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201803.00011 [pdf]

New material of the Late Miocene Moschus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Huade, Nei Mongol, North China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; ZHANG Li-Min; BAI Wei-Peng; CAI Bao-Quan
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Moschus grandaevus was firstly uncovered from the Late Miocene deposits at Ertemte, Olan Chorea, Harr Obo and Hua Ba in or around Huade County in the middle part of Nei Mongol and was described by Schlosser in 1924. The excavations by Sino-Soviet Joint Paleontological Team in 1959 and recent excavations since 2013 at Tuchengzi (Tuchetse), another locality at Huade, accumulated many specimens of the musk deer. The morphology and metric studies show that the musk deer specimens from Tuchengzi are the same as those described by Schlosser and can be included into the same species. M. grandaevus ranges from Siberia of Russia to North China, and likely to southern China, in the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The appearance of such folivorous musk deer in the Late Miocene deposits at Tuchengzi indicates that there were forests there during that period. The cladistic analyses show that the fossil species of Moschus are closely related to each other and can be grouped together as Moschini or Moschinae. Micromeryx is closer to Moschus and Cervidae, but the relationship between Micromeryx and Moschus is more complicated than previously considered; nonetheless Hispanomeryx is closer to Bovidae. Schlosser (1924)记述了最初发现于内蒙古化德境内或附近的二登图、敖兰卓蕾、哈尔敖包及华坝的古麝(Moschus grandaevus)。1959年中苏古生物考察队在化德的另一个地点土城子采集到不少古麝化石。2013年以来作者在土城子进行的野外发掘积累了更多的古麝化石标本。土城子标本在形态和测量数据方面和二登图等地点的古麝非常接近,可以归入同一种。根据现有资料归纳,古麝的地理分布范围自俄罗斯的西伯利亚到华北,很可能延伸到华南;其地质时代分布范围为晚中新世–上新世。食叶型古麝在土城子晚中新世地层中的出现说明当时土城子一带有森林环境。支序分析显示麝属(Moschus)化石种相互之间的系统关系非常近,可以归并为麝族(Moschini)或麝亚科(Moschinae); Micromeryx更接近麝属和鹿科,它与麝属之间的关系比以前认为的复杂,而Hispanomeryx更接近牛科。

提交时间: 2018-03-02 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量1836下载量320 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201802.00746 [pdf]

Reappraisal of Endotherium niinomii Shikama, 1947, a eutherian mammal from the Lower Cretaceous Fuxin Formation, Fuxin-Jinzhou Basin, Liaoning, China

WANG Yuan-Qing; KUSUHASHI Nao; JIN Xun; LI Chuan-Kui; SETOGUCHI Takeshi; GAO Chun-Ling; LIU Jin-Yuan
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Reinvestigation of the Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal Endotherium niinomii Shikama, 1947, based on the impressions of the type specimen, casts made from the impressions, and the original description, indicates that E. niinomii is characterized by the following characters: decrease in size from the m1 to the m3; a moderate height difference between the trigonid and talonid of lower molars; blunt lower molar cusps; the protoconid being the largest among the trigonid cusps; the paraconid being as tall as the metaconid; the p3 not being obviously reduced; and possible possession of five lower premolars. These characteristics clearly distinguish E. niinomii from other known Cretaceous eutherians, and support its taxonomic identity as a valid taxon.

提交时间: 2018-02-26 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量872下载量291 评论 0

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