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1. chinaXiv:202102.00085 [pdf]

An electrophysiological investigation of the temporal asynchrony effect on character-speech sound integration in Chinese typically developing children and children with dyslexia

Du, Yingchun; Li, Yizhen; Qin, Li; Bi, Hongyan
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

The neural mechanism of orthographic-phonological integration was influenced by the temporal relationship of cross-modal stimuli. However, previous studies mainly investigated the neural mechanism of letter-speech sound integration in precise temporal synchrony or small temporal asynchrony conditions. In this study, character-speech sound integration was investigated in a relatively wide temporal window. Chinese characters were presented synchronously to the onset of speech sounds or before speech sound by 300 or 600 ms (referred as AV0, AV300 and AV600). ERP responses evoked by congruent condition (speech sounds were paired with congruent visual characters) and baseline condition (speech sounds were paired with Korean characters) were compared. Different electrophysiological markers were found in the temporal synchrony and temporal asynchrony conditions. In the AV0 condition, developing dyslexia (DD) and typically developing (TD) children showed similar congruency effect on P1, N170 and N300 components, demonstrating the influence of speech sound on visual character processing. In the AV300 condition, DD group showed left-lateralized congruency effect on N200, whereas TD children showed bilateral congruency effect on N200. Both groups showed bilateral congruency effect on N200 in the AV600 condition. We speculate that the insufficient character-speech sound integration exhibited by dyslexic children in the AV300 condition was probably caused by their slow visual processing speed. The results provide unique insight into the neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a wide temporal window and point out the necessity to investigate neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a relatively wide temporal window.

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits1026Downloads216 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202012.00013 [pdf]

Assessing two separate dimensions of interpersonal trust: Other-focused trust and propensity to trust

Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

One’s propensity to trust others and others’ trustworthiness are two important aspects of interpersonal trust. Both theory and research suggest that it is possible to distinguish between an individual’s propensity to trust (one’s ‘trustingness’ or the extent to which one feels able to trust others) and their other-focused trust (the extent to which one feels that others are worthy of our trust). However, there is as yet no measure that distinguishes between these two components of trust. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of a proposed two-dimensional measure of trust that encompasses propensity to trust and other-focused trust components. To test discriminant validity, we also administered measures of personality, personal self-esteem, social capital, propensity to like people, perceived social support, as well as general and personal beliefs in a just world. Factor analyses supported the proposed two-factor model for the new trust measure. Further analyses supported the difference between these measures.

submitted time 2020-12-03 Hits2858Downloads449 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202010.00076 [pdf]

Multisensory Integration Inhibits Pupillary Light Reflex: Evidence from Pupil Oscillation

Xiangyong Yuan; Yuhui Cheng; Yi Jiang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Multisensory integration is able to enhance stimulus saliency at the early stage of information processing hierarchy. Due to the saliency enhancement, concurrently presented audiovisual stimuli are shown to evoke a transient pupil dilation than its unisensory constituents, presumably reflecting an enhanced activation of the sympathetic pathway. Since pupil size is mediated by both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic pathways, it remains largely unknown whether multisensory integration modulates pupillary responses mediated by the parasympathetic pathway. To probe this issue, the present study measured the pupillary light reflex, which refers to the pupil constriction in response to brightness and is completely controlled by the parasympathetic pathway. We purposely evoked an oscillation of pupillary light reflex by periodically changing the luminance of the visual stimuli, and found this induced pupil oscillation was substantially attenuated when the bright but not the dark phase of a flickering stimulus was periodically and synchronously presented with a burst of tone (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, the inhibited pupillary light reflex vanished when the visual stimuli were moved from the central field to the periphery (Experiment 3), while persisted when the visual stimuli appeared outside the attention focus in a demanding task (Experiment 4). These findings that multisensory integration inhibits pupillary light reflex in an eccentricity dependent but attention independent manner offer preliminary but robust evidence that the parasympathetic pathway can be modulated by multisensory integration.

submitted time 2020-11-09 Hits5692Downloads417 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202010.00002 [pdf]

Brain networks underlying the differences in audiovisual integration for reading between children and adults and its disruption in dyslexia

Hong-Yan Bi; Junjun Li; Yang Yang; Nestor Vi?as-Guasch; Yinghui Yang
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

Building robust letter-to-sound correspondences is a prerequisite for reading, and such audiovisual integration becomes progressively automatic with development. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the development of audiovisual integration for reading are largely unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a lexical decision task to investigate the changes of brain functional networks that support audiovisual integration for reading between normally developing children (9-12 years old) and adults (20-28 years old). The identified networks were further examined in children with developmental dyslexia (9-12 years old). Results revealed that adults enhanced connectivity in a prefrontal-superior temporal network relative to children, reflecting the attentional modulation to the development of audiovisual integration. Moreover, this network was disrupted in dyslexics, confirming its essential role in audiovisual integration for reading. This study, for the first time, elucidates the neural basis underlying the development of audiovisual integration for reading.

submitted time 2020-10-10 Hits5389Downloads576 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202007.00044 [pdf]

A meta-analysis of the effect of episodic future thinking on delay discounting

Jun-yan Ye; Qing-yu Ding; Ji-fang Cui; Zhe Liu; Lu-xia Jia; Xiao-jing Qin; Hua Xu; Ya Wang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Delay discounting (DD) is the phenomenon that individuals prefer to choose an immediate but smaller reward than a delayed but larger reward. Larger DD is considered as an indicator of impulsivity, the increased DD rate is also seen as a behavior indictor of various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the ability to project oneself into the future to pre-experience the future events, which can be used to reduce DD. The present study provided a meta-analysis on the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD and examined potential moderators. Thirty-seven studies including 48 contrasts were included, results showed that EFT reduced DD significantly. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that positive EFT was more efficient in reducing DD. In addition, several factors related to DD task (e.g., whether the DD money is hypothetical or potential real, whether the delay reward is fixed or variable, and the indexes of DD) were related to the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD. These results have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

submitted time 2020-07-27 Hits5705Downloads853 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202007.00020 [pdf]

Heritability of justice sensitivity

Wang,Yun; Luo,Yu; Wu, Shengtao; Zhou, Yuan
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Justice is one of fundamental principles in human evolution, and justice sensitivity, both from the proself perspective (e.g., as victim) and the prosocial perspective (e.g., as observer, beneficiary, and perpetrator), matters in mental wellness and social interaction. However, it remains unclear to what extent individual difference in justice sensitivity is influenced by genetic versus environmental factors. Using a sample with 244 twin pairs, the present research was an attempt to determine what extent genetic factor plays a role in the inter-individual difference of justice sensitivity as well as whether different facets of justice sensitivity, namely, proself and prosocial perspective, share common genetic basis. Results showed that (1) all the four facets of justice sensitivity were moderately heritable (21%–33%) and that the non-shared environmental factors accounted for the rest variations (67%–79%); (2) associations between the prosocial facets of justice sensitivity were driven by common genetics (rg: .50–.65) and non-shared environmental (re: .24–.65) influences, whereas no strong evidence supported a genetic correlation between proself and prosocial justice sensitivity. The current findings provide novel evidence that sensitivity to injustice, especially to others’ suffering, is fundamentally grounded upon genetic origin, thus shedding light on the nature and nurture aspects of justice behavior.

submitted time 2020-07-10 Hits9726Downloads1317 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202007.00002 [pdf]

Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in self-awareness of highly practiced visuomotor skills

Junjun LI; Zhenglong Lin; Ran Tao; Min Xu; Shihong Kong; Hong-Yan Bi; Yang Yang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Metacognition refers to the ability to introspect our cognitive ability, which plays an essential role in guiding and optimizing our activities. However, little is known about metacognitive capacity for highly practiced motor behaviors and its neural correlates. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study examined the brain substrates underlying individual differences in self-awareness of handwriting in adults, a highly practiced visuomotor skill. Results showed that adult writers generally overestimate their handwriting skill, which is more pronounced in males relative to females. The extent of overestimation of handwriting quality was positively correlated with grey matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. Moreover, the activation of these regions in a handwriting task was not correlation with self-awareness of handwriting, confirming that the identified connection between brain structures and handwriting self-awareness is independent of task performances. The left fusiform gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus are thought to represent domain-specific brain mechanisms for handwriting self-awareness, while the right precuneus is likely to be a domain-general brain mechanism, suggesting that the ability of introspect practiced visuomotor skills relies on both domain-general and domain-specific brain systems. Together, this study is the first to reveal the neuroanatomical correlates of a highly practiced motor behavior, extending our understanding about the neural basis of human metacognition.

submitted time 2020-06-30 Hits6930Downloads796 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202006.00172 [pdf]

Reconfiguration of functional brain networks underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting

Junjun LI; Lei HONG; Hong-yang BI; Yang YANG
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

This study aimed to examine the brain mechanisms underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while adult participants (n = 53) performed a copying task with varying speed control demands. Network analysis showed significant differences in functional connectivity within and between the frontoparietal network (FPN), the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN), the somatomotor network (SMN) and the visual network (VN) between automatic and speed-controlled handwriting irrespective of written materials, which are thought to reflect general executive control and task-relevant visuomotor operations. However, there were no differences in brain activation between automatic and controlled handwriting. These results suggest that reconfiguration of functional network architecture, rather than regional activation, underlies the dissociations between automatic and controlled handwriting. Our findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms of handwriting mastery and handwriting impairments in individuals with neurological disorders.

submitted time 2020-06-17 Hits7927Downloads752 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202003.00007 [pdf]

Brain Functional Specialization is Enhanced among Tai Chi Chuan Practitioners

Chen, Li-Zhen; Yuan, Xinru ; Zhang, Yuanchao ; Zhang, Shu; Zou, Liye ; Yang, Lin ; Chang, Yu-Kai ; Xia, Qixin ; Wang, Yiqun ; Wei, Gao-Xia
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Objective: To investigate the effect of long-term Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on practitioners’ brain functional specialization compare with the TCC novices. Methods: 22 TCC practitioners (52.4 ± 6.8 years; 7 males; educated years:12.18 ± 3.03 years) and 18 healthy controls (54.8 ± 6.8 years; 8 males; education years:11.78 ± 2.90 years) matched by age, sex, and education were enrolled. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning and cognitive test to measure the differences in functional specialization and cognitive function. Functional specialization was evaluated by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method. Results: Lower middle frontal gyrus (MFG) VMHC in TCC practitioners compared to controls. For TCC practitioners, the longer they practice, the lower their VMHC in precentral and precuneus. TCC practitioners showed better cognition performance. Limitations: Relatively small sample size. Conclusions: Changed VMHC indicated that TCC practice could enhance functional specialization in the middle frontal cortex of practitioners, which may be associated with higher-order cognitive ability.

submitted time 2020-03-05 Hits13529Downloads1000 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202002.00012 [pdf]

Horizontal but not vertical saccades enhance memory retrieval: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Qin, Xiao-jing; Yang, Han-xue ; Cui, Ji-fang ; Ye, Jun-yan ; Wang, Ya
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

BACKGROUND: Saccade-induced retrieval enhancement (SIRE) refers to the phenomenon that active engaging of horizontal eye movements before recall would enhance subsequent memory performance. This effect is generally thought to be the result of interhemispheric interaction stimulated by saccades. Nonetheless, recent findings do not fully support this hypothesis. An alternative explanation is that saccades promote memory retrieval by improving top-down attention control. Thus, the mechanisms of SIRE are unclear, the present meta-analysis quantitatively analyzed the effect of saccades on memory performance and examined the mechanisms of SIRE through moderator analysis. METHODS: We searched "Web of Science", "PubMed", and "Springer" for peer reviewed papers using the keywords "eye movements + memory" and "saccades + memory". Twenty-two papers were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant facilitation of horizontal saccades on overall memory performance, with a pooled effect size (Cohen’s d) of 0.45 (p < 0.001). However, the overall effect of vertical saccades was not significant (d = 0.1, p = 0.14). Moderation analysis showed that the handedness of participants was a significant moderator of the SIRE, with strongly right-handed individuals benefited more from horizontal saccades than non-strongly right-handed individuals (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Horizontal saccades improved memory performances, particularly for the strongly right-handed individuals, these results support the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis.

submitted time 2020-02-05 Hits14742Downloads898 Comment 0

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