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1. chinaXiv:201910.00029 [pdf]

Stand up to Action: The Postural Effect of Moral Dilemma Decision-Making and the Moderating Role of Dual Processes

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent and save five or more people. The participants in sitting or standing postures were asked whether the described action was morally acceptable (moral judgment) and whether they would perform the described action (moral action). The results demonstrated that participants were more approving of the behavioral proposal in the moral action perspective than in the moral judgment perspective across the three studies. The hypothesized postural effect was found in a field study (Study 1) and replicated in a pre-registered replication study (Study 2) and further supported in an experimental study (Study 3). Compared with those in sitting postures, participants in standing postures expressed higher approval of the behavioral proposal compared to their sitting counterparts. Furthermore, the postural effect was dismissed when participants made moral decisions with a dual task to increase cognitive load, and it was reversed when they made moral decisions after deliberate consideration of the behavioral proposal (Study 3). The present research supports and extends the dual-process morality theory by demonstrating that body posture can affect moral decision-making; it also offers novel evidence revealing the moderating role of dual process on embodiment effects. It enriches our knowledge that morality is evolutionarily embodied in postures and that the dual process can moderate embodiment effects.

submitted time 2021-01-28 Hits22510Downloads1812 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00063 [pdf]

Psychopathy and Moral Decision Making: A Data Reanalysis Exploration

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous research found that people with higher level of psychopathy trait would endorse more to the harmful but beneficial action in traditional moral dilemmas. Three possibilities for this effect were confounded: People with higher psychopathy trait, 1) care more about the beneficial consequences; 2) care less about the “no harm” norms; 3) just prefer action irrespective of consequences and norms. A multinomial processing tree model named “CNI” was developed and claimed to dissociated these three possibilities. Four studies have applied CNI model to study the psychopathy-moral decision relationship. However, the CNI model presupposes the agent sequentially processes consequences-norms-generalized inaction/action preferences, which makes the estimated parameters biased and untenable. More recently, an alternative algorithm named “CAN” was developed based on the same data structure to overcome the limitations of CNI model. We applied CAN algorithm and reanalyzed the raw data of the four studies on psychopathy-moral decision relationship. The results demonstrated that people with higher psychopathy trait have weaker consequences and norms sensitivities, stronger overall action preferences, stronger inaction/action preferences irrespective of norms and consequences, and weaker moral principles obedience. Furthermore, the mediation and moderation reanalysis explorations demonstrated that instrumental harm and moral identity partly mediate the psychopathy-moral decision relationship and that perceived societal standards rather than personal standards when making moral decisions can alleviate the positive effects of psychopathy on overall action preference and action preference irrespective of norms and consequences. Present reanalysis exploration study clarified and deepened our insights on the relationship between psychopathy and moral decisions. Theoretical and methodological implications were also discussed.

submitted time 2021-01-14 Hits1203Downloads248 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202010.00080 [pdf]

微波热点出现与维持的物理机制探讨

Jianyi Ma; Yongxin Hu
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

微波加热反应和传统加热反应相比有反应速度快、产率高等特点。微波反应中不同于传统加热的现象被称为“微波效应”。被观测到的微波效应包括热现象、热点现象、选择性加热等。理解和有效控制微波效应中的微波热点效应对理解和应用微波加热至关重要。基于我们2016年提出的微波反应量子态识别主方程模型,本文研究发现微波热点这种非线性现象的出现,宏观上与体系的温度的不均匀分布及微波强度有关,微观上与微波吸收导致的非平衡行为直接关联。本文建议可以通过预先加热反应容器中的空间局域点从而在该点诱发微波热点,也可以通过激发特定分子中的局域基团来诱导分子内热点的形成。可控微波热点效应有望应用在其它领域,本文的结论表明从量子态层面理解宏观非平衡和非线性行为的物理机制是必要的。

submitted time 2020-10-26 Hits4322Downloads533 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201801.00588 [pdf]

Inverse Problem and Variation Method to Optimize Cascade Heat Exchange Network in Central Heating System

ZHANG Yin1,2*, WEI Zhiyuan2, ZHANG Yinping2, WANG Xin2
Subjects: Dynamic and Electric Engineering >> Engineering Thermophysics

Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40% of total building energy usage. In central heating systems, heat is often transferred from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers are installed at heat source, substations and terminals respectively. For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperature, increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving. In this paper, the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established. Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity, the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method. The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger. It also indicates that in order to improve the thermal performance of the whole system, more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small. This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.

submitted time 2018-01-24 From cooperative journals:《热科学学报》 Hits34234Downloads970 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.02280 [pdf]

The Application of SNiPER to the JUNO Simulation

Tao Lin; Jiaheng Zou; Weidong Li; Ziyan Deng; Xiao Fang; Guofu Cao; Xingtao Huang; Zhengyun You
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

The JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) is a multipurpose neutrino experiment which is designed to determine neutrino mass hierarchy and precisely measure oscillation parameters. As one of the important systems, the JUNO o ine software is being developed using the SNiPER software. In this proceeding, we focus on the requirements of JUNO simulation and present the working solution based on the SNiPER. The JUNO simulation framework is in charge of managing event data, detector geometries and materials, physics processes, simulation truth information etc. It glues physics generator, detector simulation and electronics simulation modules together to achieve a full simulation chain. In the implementation of the framework, many attractive characteristics of the SNiPER have been used, such as dynamic loading, exible ow control, multiple event management and Python binding. Furthermore, additional e orts have been made to make both detector and electronics simulation exible enough to accommodate and optimize di erent detector designs. For the Geant4-based detector simulation, each sub-detector component is implemented as a SNiPER tool which is a dynamically loadable and con gurable plugin. So it is possible to select the detector con guration at runtime. The framework provides the event loop to drive the detector simulation and interacts with the Geant4 which is implemented as a passive service. All levels of user actions are wrapped into di erent customizable tools, so that user functions can be easily extended by just adding new tools. The electronics simulation has been implemented by following an event driven scheme. The SNiPER task component is used to simulate data processing steps in the electronics modules. The electronics and trigger are synchronized by triggered events containing possible physics signals. The JUNO simulation software has been released and is being used by the JUNO collaboration to do detector design optimization, event reconstruction algorithm development and physics sensitivity studies.

submitted time 2017-11-10 Hits621Downloads373 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201703.00628 [pdf]

Simulation of positron backscattering on Al, Cu, Ag and Au targets using GEANT4 code

Xin Lai; Xiaopan Jiang; Xingzhong Cao; Xi Zhang; Zhiming Zhang; Xuexiang Cao; Gang Xiang; Baoyi Wang; Long Wei
Subjects: Physics >> Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

In this paper, backscattering of 3-50 keV positrons on Al, Cu, Ag and Au metallic targets has been systematically investigated using GEANT4 code. The dependence of positron backscattering coefficients on atomic number Z, target thickness, incident energy and angles has been discussed comprehensively. Besides, positron backscattering spectra for those metallic targets at different discrete scattering angles were also studied to provide theoretical basis of the most appropriate scattering angle selected for simulation parameters and specified applied measurement techniques. The impact of atomic number Z of targets on positron backscattering spectra was investigated as well. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with previous experiment data and theoretical work.

submitted time 2017-03-26 Hits13647Downloads1383 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201703.00577 [pdf]

Effect of Cu content on the defect evolution in Fe-Cu alloys investigated by PALS

X. Z. Cao; X. Lai; G. D. Cheng; S. X. Jin; X. Zhang; P. Zhang; B. Y. Wang
Subjects: Physics >> Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

The effect of Cu content on the evolution of defects in Fe-x%Cu alloys (x= 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6) were investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The vacancy-type and Cu-vacancy complexes defects were respectively produced by quenching from 1173 K and cold-rolled deformation followed by isochronal annealing. The isochronal annealing results obtained by PALS showed that Cu-vacancy complexes delayed the complete recovery of vacancy-type defects and the complete recovery temperature increased with the content of Cu in 30% deformed Fe-Cu alloys. The increment of Cu content also restrained the migration of vacancies in as-quenched Fe-Cu alloys.

submitted time 2017-03-26 Hits1064Downloads576 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201609.00971 [pdf]

Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

Jingyu Tang; J. Scott Berg; Weiping Chai; Fusan Chen; Nian Chen; Weiren Chou; HaiyiDong; Jie Gao; Tao Han; Yongbin Leng; Guangrui Li; Ramesh Gupta; Peng Li; Zhihui Li; Baiqi Liu; Yudong Liu; Xinchou Lou; Qing Luo; Ernie Malamud; Lijun Mao
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

submitted time 2016-09-14 Hits761Downloads456 Comment 0

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