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1. chinaXiv:201910.00029 [pdf]

Stand up to Action: The Postural Effect of Moral Dilemma Decision-Making and the Moderating Role of Dual Processes

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent and save five or more people. The participants in sitting or standing postures were asked whether the described action was morally acceptable (moral judgment) and whether they would perform the described action (moral action). The results demonstrated that participants were more approving of the behavioral proposal in the moral action perspective than in the moral judgment perspective across the three studies. The hypothesized postural effect was found in a field study (Study 1) and replicated in a pre-registered replication study (Study 2) and further supported in an experimental study (Study 3). Compared with those in sitting postures, participants in standing postures expressed higher approval of the behavioral proposal compared to their sitting counterparts. Furthermore, the postural effect was dismissed when participants made moral decisions with a dual task to increase cognitive load, and it was reversed when they made moral decisions after deliberate consideration of the behavioral proposal (Study 3). The present research supports and extends the dual-process morality theory by demonstrating that body posture can affect moral decision-making; it also offers novel evidence revealing the moderating role of dual process on embodiment effects. It enriches our knowledge that morality is evolutionarily embodied in postures and that the dual process can moderate embodiment effects.

submitted time 2021-01-28 Hits22493Downloads1809 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00059 [pdf]

Coping With Coronavirus Pandemic: Risk Perception Predicts Life Optimism

Kailin Cheng; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Given that the coronavirus pandemic has become a severe concern around the world, how can optimism be maintained in an outbreak of a collective epidemic? We proposed that perceived control and negative affect could be potential explanatory factors for optimism in the face of pandemic. Methods & Results: In Study 1, a large-scale (N = 599) cross-sectional design (N = 599) showed the effect of risk perception on life optimism and the serial mediating effect of “perceived control–negative affect” through structural equation modeling. Then, Study 2 (N = 191) ascertained the causality between risk perception for epidemic and life optimism with experimental manipulations. Finally, Study 3 (N = 186) controlled for extrinsic variables and further revealed that the effect of risk perception on optimism could be extended to overall subjective well-being. Conclusions: Together, these findings indicated that under influenza epidemic, risk perception could make a difference in life optimism. Moreover, perceived control and negative affect were notable contributing factors in the link. Measures strengthening the publicity and transparency of recovery rates should be taken to reduce public risk perceptions and promote life optimism.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits1300Downloads299 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00060 [pdf]

Haze Blocks the Windows to the Soul: The Role of Anonymity in the Unethical Effects of Air Pollution

Kailin CHENG; Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Air pollution is a global concern with both health and psychological costs. Drawing upon the unethical impacts of air pollution, this paper proposes that haze could give rise to immoral tendencies through enhanced anonymity. Methods & Results: Big data analysis of daily web searches across a period of three years revealed that an increase in web searches for immoral words was associated with hazy days. Three subsequent experiments established the causal effects of psychologically experiencing haze or personally experiencing hazy days on immoral intentions and cheating behaviors. Moreover, these effects were mediated by perceived anonymity, intensified by the low visibility in haze. In support of deindividuation, masking, which could boost perceived anonymity, amplified the unethical effects of air pollution. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived anonymity was a key psychological process underlying the unethical effects of haze. The findings of the study provide insights for researchers and policy makers to tackle the adverse effects of anonymity, especially on polluted days.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits1080Downloads251 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00063 [pdf]

Psychopathy and Moral Decision Making: A Data Reanalysis Exploration

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous research found that people with higher level of psychopathy trait would endorse more to the harmful but beneficial action in traditional moral dilemmas. Three possibilities for this effect were confounded: People with higher psychopathy trait, 1) care more about the beneficial consequences; 2) care less about the “no harm” norms; 3) just prefer action irrespective of consequences and norms. A multinomial processing tree model named “CNI” was developed and claimed to dissociated these three possibilities. Four studies have applied CNI model to study the psychopathy-moral decision relationship. However, the CNI model presupposes the agent sequentially processes consequences-norms-generalized inaction/action preferences, which makes the estimated parameters biased and untenable. More recently, an alternative algorithm named “CAN” was developed based on the same data structure to overcome the limitations of CNI model. We applied CAN algorithm and reanalyzed the raw data of the four studies on psychopathy-moral decision relationship. The results demonstrated that people with higher psychopathy trait have weaker consequences and norms sensitivities, stronger overall action preferences, stronger inaction/action preferences irrespective of norms and consequences, and weaker moral principles obedience. Furthermore, the mediation and moderation reanalysis explorations demonstrated that instrumental harm and moral identity partly mediate the psychopathy-moral decision relationship and that perceived societal standards rather than personal standards when making moral decisions can alleviate the positive effects of psychopathy on overall action preference and action preference irrespective of norms and consequences. Present reanalysis exploration study clarified and deepened our insights on the relationship between psychopathy and moral decisions. Theoretical and methodological implications were also discussed.

submitted time 2021-01-14 Hits1198Downloads246 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202010.00012 [pdf]

Do Experiences Studying Abroad Promote Dialectical Thinking?

Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yang; Liao, Shanhui; Kaiping Peng
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Our current work seeks to provide direct evidence on whether Chinese international students’ experiences studying abroad promote dialectical thinking. We collected behavioral data from 258 Chinese international students studying in multiple regions. We found that when primed with studying abroad (relative to traveling abroad, their hometown culture and a control condition), participants were more likely to show tolerance for contradiction, meaning that they deemed both sides of contradictory scientific statements as convincing and rated them more favorably. Therefore, it is plausible that Chinese international students’ experiences studying abroad promote their dialectical thinking regardless of their host culture. More work is needed to further this line of research by 1) extending these effects with other measures of dialectical thinking, 2) adopting differing paradigms to provide more robust findings, and 3) understanding how experiences studying abroad may promote dialectical thinking.

submitted time 2020-10-19 Hits3879Downloads510 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202005.00043 [pdf]

DEED: A general quantization scheme for saving bits in communication

Tian Ye; Peijun Xiao; Ruoyu Sun
Subjects: Mathematics >> Control and Optimization.

Quantization is a popular technique to reduce communication in distributed optimization. Motivated by the classical work on inexact gradient descent (GD) \cite{bertsekas2000gradient}, we provide a general convergence analysis framework for inexact GD that is tailored for quantization schemes. We also propose a quantization scheme Double Encoding and Error Diminishing (DEED). DEED can achieve small communication complexity in three settings: frequent-communication large-memory, frequent-communication small-memory, and infrequent-communication (e.g. federated learning). More specifically, in the frequent-communication large-memory setting, DEED can be easily combined with Nesterov's method, so that the total number of bits required is $ \tilde{O}( \sqrt{\kappa} \log 1/\epsilon )$, where $\tilde{O}$ hides numerical constant and $\log \kappa $ factors. In the frequent-communication small-memory setting, DEED combined with SGD only requires $\tilde{O}( \kappa \log 1/\epsilon)$ number of bits in the interpolation regime. In the infrequent communication setting, DEED combined with Federated averaging requires a smaller total number of bits than Federated Averaging. All these algorithms converge at the same rate as their non-quantized versions, while using a smaller number of bits.

submitted time 2020-06-16 Hits12231Downloads1282 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202004.00009 [pdf]

CAN Algorithm: An Individual Level Approach to identify Consequences and Norms Sensitivities and Overall Action/inaction Preferences in Moral Decision-making

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

Gawronski et al. (2017) developed a CNI model to measure an agent’s norms sensitivity, consequences sensitivity, and generalized inaction/action preferences when making moral decisions. However, the CNI model presupposed that an agent considers consequences—norms—generalized inaction/action preferences sequentially, which is untenable based on recent evidence. Moreover, the CNI model generates parameters at the group level based on binary categoric data. Hence, the C/N/I parameters cannot be used for correlation analyses or other conventional research designs. To solve these limitations, we developed the CAN algorithm to compute norms and consequences sensitivities and overall action/inaction preferences algebraically in a parallel manner. We re-analyzed the raw data of Gawronski et al.(2017) to test the methodological predictions. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the C parameter is approximately equal between the CNI model and CAN algorithm; (2) the N parameter under the CNI model approximately equals N/(1 – C) under the CAN algorithm; (3) the I parameter and A parameter are reversed around 0.5 – the larger the I parameter, the more the generalized inaction versus action preference and the larger the A parameter, the more overall action versus inaction preference; (4) tests of differences in parameters between groups with the CNI model and CAN algorithm led to almost the same statistical conclusion; (5) Parameters from the CAN algorithm can be used for correlational analyses and multiple comparisons, and this is an advantage over the parameters from the CNI model. The theoretical and methodological implications of our study were also discussed.

submitted time 2020-04-03 Hits10522Downloads1112 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201905.00012 [pdf]

Transfer Learning for Scientific Data Chain Extraction in Small Chemical Corpus with BERT-CRF Model

Na Pang; Li Qian; Weimin Lyu; Jin-Dong Yang
Subjects: Computer Science >> Natural Language Understanding and Machine Translation

Abstract. Computational chemistry develops fast in recent years due to the rapid growth and breakthroughs in AI. Thanks for the progress in natural language processing, researchers can extract more fine-grained knowledge in publications to stimulate the development in computational chemistry. While the works and corpora in chemical entity extraction have been restricted in the biomedicine or life science field instead of the chemistry field, we build a new corpus in chemical bond field anno- tated for 7 types of entities: compound, solvent, method, bond, reaction, pKa and pKa value. This paper presents a novel BERT-CRF model to build scientific chemical data chains by extracting 7 chemical entities and relations from publications. And we propose a joint model to ex- tract the entities and relations simultaneously. Experimental results on our Chemical Special Corpus demonstrate that we achieve state-of-art and competitive NER performance.

submitted time 2019-05-12 Hits22930Downloads1245 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201810.00102 [pdf]

Where is the Embodiment Effect? The Hierarchical Access Priority Model

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao; Kaiping Peng
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

There are detailed theories and abundant empirical results regarding embodied cognition. However, embodiment effects are undergoing a replication crisis. Based on the hierarchical structure of embodiment tasks and the dual process property of embodiment phenomena, we propose the hierarchical access priority model (HAP). According to HAP, the generation of embodiment effects depends on the access priority of embodied variables to unconscious processes, and embodiment effects from different hierarchy levels show a contravariant relationship between effect size and stability. Theoretically, the stability of an embodiment effect is partly determined by the hierarchy of the embodied variable, and dissociation of the dual process moderates the effect size. Empirically, the hierarchical linear model analytic method should be considered for embodied research; the embodied variable could be designed as a mediating or moderating variable, and other possible masked mediating variables should be considered. HAP offers an insightful theoretical perspective for the embodiment replication crisis.

submitted time 2019-03-25 Hits10678Downloads1908 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201810.00184 [pdf]

Simulating hydrological responses to climate change using dynamic and statistical downscaling methods: a case study in the Kaidu River Basin, Xinjiang, China

BA Wulong; DU Pengfei; LIU Tie; BAO Anming; LUO Min; Mujtaba HASSAN; QIN Chengxin
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Climate change may affect water resources by altering various processes in natural ecosystems. Dynamic and statistical downscaling methods are commonly used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources. Objectively, both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we assessed the impacts of climate change on water resources during the future periods (2020–2029 and 2040–2049) in the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin, Xinjiang, China, and discussed the uncertainties in the research processes by integrating dynamic and statistical downscaling methods (regional climate models (RCMs) and general circulation modes (GCMs)) and utilizing these outputs. The reference period for this study is 1990–1999. The climate change trend is represented by three bias-corrected RCMs (i.e., Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 regional climate model (HadGEM3-RA), Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4), and Seoul National University Meso-scale Model version 5 (SUN-MM5)) and an ensemble of GCMs on the basis of delta change method under two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). We applied the hydrological SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model which uses the RCMs/GCMs outputs as input to analyze the impacts of climate change on the stream flow and peak flow of the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin. The simulation of climate factors under future scenarios indicates that both temperature and precipitation in the study area will increase in the future compared with the reference period, with the largest increase of annual mean temperature and largest percentage increase of mean annual precipitation being of 2.4°C and 38.4%, respectively. Based on the results from bias correction of climate model outputs, we conclude that the accuracy of RCM (regional climate model) simulation is much better for temperature than for precipitation. The percentage increase in precipitation simulated by the three RCMs is generally higher than that simulated by the ensemble of GCMs. As for the changes in seasonal precipitation, RCMs exhibit a large percentage increase in seasonal precipitation in the wet season, while the ensemble of GCMs shows a large percentage increase in the dry season. Most of the hydrological simulations indicate that the total stream flow will decrease in the future due to the increase of evaporation, and the maximum percentage decrease can reach up to 22.3%. The possibility of peak flow increasing in the future is expected to higher than 99%. These results indicate that less water is likely to be available in the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin in the future, and that the temporal distribution of flow may become more concentrated.

submitted time 2018-10-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits4360Downloads1152 Comment 0

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