小学生作业作弊是心理学领域忽略已久的研究重点，机器学习是数智时代新兴的人 工智能科学。笔者对 2,098 名 2 至 6 年级小学生进行问卷调查，采用机器学习法，考察个 体认知、道德判断、同伴行为，及性别、年级、成绩等因素对小学生作业作弊行为的影 响。结果表明:集成机器学习模型对小学生作业作弊预测准确率(AUC 均值)达 80.46%;对 作业作弊预测效应最强的四个因素依次为个体对作业作弊的接受程度、观察到同伴作弊的 普遍性和频率，及其自身成绩。
摘要： 目的/意义 图书情报与档案管理一级学科更名为“信息资源管理”，为拓展学科内涵、重塑学科体系提供了新空间。 方法/过程 基于文献调研和国家战略导向，提出“服务科技自立自强是信息资源管理学科发展的重要向度”的议题，并从历史的、现实的、未来的三个维度观测本学科服务科技自立自强目标的嬗变与发展。 结果/结论 面向科技自立自强场域，我国信息资源管理学科存在目标定位模糊、供需矛盾突出、竞合能力薄弱等方面的现实问题。为强化学科效能，更好地促进行业创新发展，提出几点建议：面向现实情境，加强学科制度建设；坚持吸收借鉴，构建自主知识体系；推动融会贯通，重视学科交叉协同；完善人才梯队，激发学科发展动能。
摘要：Reproducibility is a cornerstone of scientific research. Data science is not an exception. In recent years scientists were concerned about a large number of irreproducible studies. Such reproducibility crisis in science could severely undermine public trust in science and science-based public policy. Recent efforts to promote reproducible research mainly focused on matured scientists and much less on student training. In this study, we conducted action research on students in data science to evaluate to what extent students are ready for communicating reproducible data analysis. The results show that although two-thirds of the students claimed they were able to reproduce results in peer reports, only one-third of reports provided all necessary information for replication. The actual replication results also include conflicting claims; some lacked comparisons of original and replication results, indicating that some students did not share a consistent understanding of what reproducibility means and how to report replication results. The findings suggest that more training is needed to help data science students communicating reproducible data analysis.
摘要：It is easy to argue that open data is critical to enabling faster and more effective research discovery. In this article, we describe the approach we have taken at Wiley to support open data and to start enabling more data to be FAIR data (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) with the implementation of four data policies: “Encourages”, “Expects”, “Mandates” and “Mandates and Peer Reviews Data”. We describe the rationale for these policies and levels of adoption so far. In the coming months we plan to measure and monitor the implementation of these policies via the publication of data availability statements and data citations. With this information, we’ll be able to celebrate adoption of data-sharing practices by the research communities we work with and serve, and we hope to showcase researchers from those communities leading in open research.
摘要：Over the past five years, Elsevier has focused on implementing FAIR and best practices in data management, from data preservation through reuse. In this paper we describe a series of efforts undertaken in this time to support proper data management practices. In particular, we discuss our journal data policies and their implementation, the current status and future goals for the research data management platform Mendeley Data, and clear and persistent linkages to individual data sets stored on external data repositories from corresponding published papers through partnership with Scholix. Early analysis of our data policies implementation confirms significant disparities at the subject level regarding data sharing practices, with most uptake within disciplines of Physical Sciences. Future directions at Elsevier include implementing better discoverability of linked data within an article and incorporating research data usage metrics.
摘要：Knowledge graph (KG) has played an important role in enhancing the performance of many intelligent systems. In this paper, we introduce the solution of building a large-scale multi-source knowledge graph from scratch in Sogou Inc., including its architecture, technical implementation and applications. Unlike previous works that build knowledge graph with graph databases, we build the knowledge graph on top of SogouQdb, a distributed search engine developed by Sogou Web Search Department, which can be easily scaled to support petabytes of data. As a supplement to the search engine, we also introduce a series of models to support inference and graph based querying. Currently, the data of Sogou knowledge graph that are collected from 136 different websites and constantly updated consist of 54 million entities and over 600 million entity links. We also introduce three applications of knowledge graph in Sogou Inc.: entity detection and linking, knowledge based question answering and knowledge based dialogue system. These applications have been used in Web search products to help user acquire information more efficiently.
摘要：For many government departments, uncertainty aversion is a source of barriers in the advancement of data openness. A more active response to potential risks is needed and necessitates an in-depth examination of risks related to open government data (OGD). With a cross-case study in which three cases from the United Kingdom, the United States and China are examined, this study identifies potential risks that might emerge at different stages of the lifecycle of OGD programs and constructs a taxonomy model for them. The taxonomy model distinguishes the “risks from OGD” from the “risks to OGD”, which can help government departments make better responses. Finally, risk response strategies are suggested based on the research results.
摘要：目的/意义 本文系统地总结和提炼了“第二届智慧图书馆与智慧服务学术研讨会”专家观点，推动智慧图书馆建设与智慧服务能力提升，为智慧图书馆的发展指明方向。 方法/过程 对10名专家的报告内容进行解读，剖析专家对智慧图书馆及智慧服务的认知与主要观点，提炼智慧图书馆与智慧服务的要义与趋势。 结果/结论 智慧图书馆与智慧服务是一个不断发展的过程，需要进一步明确智慧图书馆的建设要求与路径，把握好智慧图书馆的发展趋势。
摘要：Multi-modal entity linking plays a crucial role in a wide range of knowledge-based modal-fusion tasks, i.e., multi-modal retrieval and multi-modal event extraction. We introduce the new ZEro-shot Multi-modal Entity Linking (ZEMEL) task, the format is similar to multi-modal entity linking, but multi-modal mentions are linked to unseen entities in the knowledge graph, and the purpose of zero-shot setting is to realize robust linking in highly specialized domains. Simultaneously, the inference efficiency of existing models is low when there are many candidate entities. On this account, we propose a novel model that leverages visual#2; linguistic representation through the co-attentional mechanism to deal with the ZEMEL task, considering the trade-off between performance and efficiency of the model. We also build a dataset named ZEMELD for the new task, which contains multi-modal data resources collected from Wikipedia, and we annotate the entities as ground truth. Extensive experimental results on the dataset show that our proposed model is effective as it significantly improves the precision from 68.93% to 82.62% comparing with baselines in the ZEMEL task.
摘要：In this study, we uncover the topics of Chinese public cultural activities in 2020 with a two-step short text clustering (self-taught neural networks and graph-based clustering) and topic modeling approach. The dataset we use for this research is collected from 108 websites of libraries and cultural centers, containing over 17,000 articles. With the novel framework we propose, we derive 3 clusters and 8 topics from 21 provincial#2; level regions in China. By plotting the topic distribution of each cluster, we are able to shows unique tendencies of local cultural institutes, that is, free lessons and lectures on art and culture, entertainment and service for socially vulnerable groups, and the preservation of intangible cultural heritage respectively. The findings of our study provide decision-making support for cultural institutes, thus promoting public cultural service from a data-driven perspective.
摘要：The research on graph pattern matching (GPM) has attracted a lot of attention. However, most of the research has focused on complex networks, and there are few researches on GPM in the medical field. Hence, with GPM this paper is to make a breast cancer-oriented diagnosis before the surgery. Technically, this paper has firstly made a new definition of GPM, aiming to explore the GPM in the medical field, especially in Medical Knowledge Graphs (MKGs). Then, in the specific matching process, this paper introduces fuzzy calculation, and proposes a multi-threaded bidirectional routing exploration (M-TBRE) algorithm based on depth first search and a two-way routing matching algorithm based on multi-threading. In addition, fuzzy constraints are introduced in the M-TBRE algorithm, which leads to the Fuzzy-M-TBRE algorithm. The experimental results on the two datasets show that compared with existing algorithms, our proposed algorithm is more efficient and effective.
摘要：Relational extraction plays an important role in the field of natural language processing to predict semantic relationships between entities in a sentence. Currently, most models have typically utilized the natural language processing tools to capture high-level features with an attention mechanism to mitigate the adverse effects of noise in sentences for the prediction results. However, in the task of relational classification, these attention mechanisms do not take full advantage of the semantic information of some keywords which have information on relational expressions in the sentences. Therefore, we propose a novel relation extraction model based on the attention mechanism with keywords, named Relation Extraction Based on Keywords Attention (REKA). In particular, the proposed model makes use of bi-directional GRU (Bi-GRU) to reduce computation, obtain the representation of sentences , and extracts prior knowledge of entity pair without any NLP tools. Besides the calculation of the entity-pair similarity, Keywords attention in the REKA model also utilizes a linear-chain conditional random field (CRF) combining entity-pair features, similarity features between entity-pair features, and its hidden vectors, to obtain the attention weight resulting from the marginal distribution of each word. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach can utilize keywords incorporating relational expression semantics in sentences without the assistance of any high-level features and achieve better performance than traditional methods.
摘要：Artificial intelligence and machine learning applications are of significant importance almost in every field of human life to solve problems or support human experts. However, the determination of the machine learning model to achieve a superior result for a particular problem within the wide real-life application areas is still a challenging task for researchers. The success of a model could be affected by several factors such as dataset characteristics, training strategy and model responses. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis is required to determine model ability and the efficiency of the considered strategies. This study implemented ten benchmark machine learning models on seventeen varied datasets. Experiments are performed using four different training strategies 60:40, 70:30, and 80:20 hold-out and five-fold cross-validation techniques. We used three evaluation metrics to evaluate the experimental results: mean squared error, mean absolute error, and coefficient of determination (R2 score). The considered models are analyzed, and each model's advantages, disadvantages, and data dependencies are indicated. As a result of performed excess number of experiments, the deep Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural network outperformed other considered models, namely, decision tree, linear regression, support vector regression with a linear and radial basis function kernels, random forest, gradient boosting, extreme gradient boosting, shallow neural network, and deep neural network. It has also been shown that cross-validation has a tremendous impact on the results of the experiments and should be considered for the model evaluation in regression studies where data mining or selection is not performed.
摘要：COVID-19 evolves rapidly and an enormous number of people worldwide desire instant access to COVID- 19 information such as the overview, clinic knowledge, vaccine, prevention measures, and COVID-19 mutation. Question answering (QA) has become the mainstream interaction way for users to consume the ever-growing information by posing natural language questions. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to develop a QA system to offer consulting services all the time to relieve the stress of health services. In particular, people increasingly pay more attention to complex multi-hop questions rather than simple ones during the lasting pandemic, but the existing COVID-19 QA systems fail to meet their complex information needs. In this paper, we introduce a novel multi-hop QA system called COKG-QA, which reasons over multiple relations over large-scale COVID-19 Knowledge Graphs to return answers given a question. In the field of question answering over knowledge graph, current methods usually represent entities and schemas based on some knowledge embedding models and represent questions using pre-trained models. While it is convenient to represent different knowledge (i.e., entities and questions) based on specified embeddings, an issue raises that these separate representations come from heterogeneous vector spaces. We align question embeddings with knowledge embeddings in a common semantic space by a simple but effective embedding projection mechanism. Furthermore, we propose combining entity embeddings with their corresponding schema embeddings which served as important prior knowledge, to help search for the correct answer entity of specified types. In addition, we derive a large multi-hop Chinese COVID-19 dataset (called COKG-DATA for remembering) for COKG-QA based on the linked knowledge graph OpenKG-COVID19 launched by OpenKG, including comprehensive and representative information about COVID-19. COKG-QA achieves quite competitive performance in the 1-hop and 2-hop data while obtaining the best result with significant improvements in the 3-hop. And it is more efficient to be used in the QA system for users. Moreover, the user study shows that the system not only provides accurate and interpretable answers but also is easy to use and comes with smart tips and suggestions.
摘要：Few-shot learning has been proposed and rapidly emerging as a viable means for completing various tasks. Many few-shot models have been widely used for relation learning tasks. However, each of these models has a shortage of capturing a certain aspect of semantic features, for example, CNN on long-range dependencies part, Transformer on local features. It is difficult for a single model to adapt to various relation learning, which results in a high variance problem. Ensemble strategy could be competitive in improving the accuracy of few-shot relation extraction and mitigating high variance risks. This paper explores an ensemble approach to reduce the variance and introduces fine-tuning and feature attention strategies to calibrate relation-level features. Results on several few-shot relation learning tasks show that our model significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art models.
摘要：Temporal information is pervasive and crucial in medical records and other clinical text, as it formulates the development process of medical conditions and is vital for clinical decision making. However, providing a holistic knowledge representation and reasoning framework for various time expressions in the clinical text is challenging. In order to capture complex temporal semantics in clinical text, we propose a novel Clinical Time Ontology (CTO) as an extension from OWL framework. More specifically, we identified eight time#2; related problems in clinical text and created 11 core temporal classes to conceptualize the fuzzy time, cyclic time, irregular time, negations and other complex aspects of clinical time. Then, we extended Allen’s and TEO’s temporal relations and defined the relation concept description between complex and simple time. Simultaneously, we provided a formulaic and graphical presentation of complex time and complex time relationships. We carried out empirical study on the expressiveness and usability of CTO using real-world healthcare datasets. Finally, experiment results demonstrate that CTO could faithfully represent and reason over 93% of the temporal expressions, and it can cover a wider range of time-related classes in clinical domain.
摘要：A growing interest in producing and sharing computable biomedical knowledge artifacts (CBKs) is increasing the demand for repositories that validate, catalog, and provide shared access to CBKs. However, there is a lack of evidence on how best to manage and sustain CBK repositories. In this paper, we present the results of interviews with several pioneering CBK repository owners. These interviews were informed by the Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification (TRAC) framework. Insights gained from these interviews suggest that the organizations operating CBK repositories are somewhat new, that their initial approaches to repository governance are informal, and that achieving economic sustainability for their CBK repositories is a major challenge. To enable a learning health system to make better use of its data intelligence, future approaches to CBK repository management will require enhanced governance and closer adherence to best practice frameworks to meet the needs of myriad biomedical science and health communities. More effort is needed to find sustainable funding models for accessible CBK artifact collections.
摘要：The UK Catalysis Hub (UKCH) is designing a virtual research environment to support data processing and analysis, the Catalysis Research Workbench (CRW). The development of this platform requires identifying the processing and analysis needs of the UKCH members and mapping them to potential solutions. This paper presents a proposal for a demonstrator to analyse the use of scientific workflows for large scale data processing. The demonstrator provides a concrete target to promote further discussion of the processing and analysis needs of the UKCH community. In this paper, we will discuss the main requirements for data processing elicited and the proposed adaptations that will be incorporated in the design of the CRW and how to integrate the proposed solutions with existing practices of the UKCH. The demonstrator has been used in discussion with researchers and in presentations to the UKCH community, generating increased interest and motivating further development.
摘要：The investigation proposes the application of an ontological semantic approach to describing workflow control patterns, research workflow step patterns, and the meaning of the workflows in terms of domain knowledge. The approach can provide wide opportunities for semantic refinement, reuse, and composition of workflows. Automatic reasoning allows verifying those compositions and implementations and provides machine-actionable workflow manipulation and problem-solving using workflows. The described approach can take into account the implementation of workflows in different workflow management systems, the organization of workflows collections in data infrastructures and the search for them, the semantic approach to the selection of workflows and resources in the research domain, the creation of research step patterns and their implementation reusing fragments of existing workflows, the possibility of automation of problem#2; solving based on the reuse of workflows. The application of the approach to CWFR conceptions is proposed.