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1. chinaXiv:202011.00131 [pdf]

Can climate change influence agricultural GTFP in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China?

FENG,Jian; ZHAO,Lingdi; ZHANG,Yibo; SUN,Lingxiao; YU,Xiang; YU,Yang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

There are eight provinces and autonomous regions (Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Shanxi Province, and Shaanxi Province) in Northwest China, most areas of which are located in arid and semi-arid regions (northwest of the 400 mm precipitation line), accounting for 58.74% of the country's land area and sustaining approximately 7.84×106 people. Because of drought conditions and fragile ecology, these regions cannot develop agriculture at the expense of the environment. Given the challenges of global warming, the green total factor productivity (GTFP), taking CO2 emissions as an undesirable output, is an effective index for measuring the sustainability of agricultural development. Agricultural GTFP can be influenced by both internal production factors (labor force, machinery, land, agricultural plastic film, diesel, pesticide, and fertilizer) and external climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration). In this study, we used the Super-slacks-based measure (Super-SBM) model to measure agricultural GTFP during the period 2000–2016 at the regional level. Our results show that the average agricultural GTFP of most provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions underwent a fluctuating increase during the study period (2000–2016), and the fluctuation was caused by the production factors (input and output factors). To improve agricultural GTFP, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Gansu should reduce agricultural labor force input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Shanxi should decrease machinery input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Shanxi should reduce fertilizer input; Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia should reduce diesel input; Xinjiang and Gansu should decrease plastic film input; and Gansu, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia should cut pesticide input. Desirable output agricultural earnings should be increased in Qinghai and Tibet, and undesirable output (CO2 emissions) should be reduced in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Shaanxi. Agricultural GTFP is influenced not only by internal production factors but also by external climate factors. To determine the influence of climate factors on GTFP in these provinces and autonomous regions, we used a Geographical Detector (Geodetector) model to analyze the influence of climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) and identify the relationships between different climate factors and GTFP. We found that temperature played a significant role in the spatial heterogeneity of GTFP among provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions. For Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Tibet, a suitable average annual temperature would be in the range of 7°C–9°C; for Gansu, Shanxi, and Ningxia, it would be 11°C–13°C; and for Shaanxi, it would be 15°C–17°C. Stable climatic conditions and more efficient production are prerequisites for the development of sustainable agriculture. Hence, in the agricultural production process, reducing the redundancy of input factors is the best way to reduce CO2 emissions and to maintain temperatures, thereby improving the agricultural GTFP. The significance of this study is that it explores the impact of both internal production factors and external climatic factors on the development of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, identifying an effective way forward for the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2694Downloads239 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01321 [pdf]

Peptidyl-prolyl isomerization targets rice Aux/IAAs for proteasomal degradation during auxin signalling

Jing, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Huakun; Nian, Jinqiang; Feng, Jian; Li, Jiayang; Zuo, Jianru; Jing, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Huakun; Nian, Jinqiang; Feng, Jian; Li, Jiayang; Zuo, Jianru; Jing, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Huakun; Liu, Xuehui
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

In plants, auxin signalling is initiated by the auxin-promoted interaction between the auxin receptor TIR1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which are subsequently degraded by the proteasome. Gain-of-function mutations in the highly conserved domain II of Aux/IAAs abolish the TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction and thus cause an auxin-resistant phenotype. Here we show that peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of rice OsIAA11 catalysed by LATERAL ROOTLESS2 (LRT2), a cyclophilin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, directly regulates the stability of OsIAA11. NMR spectroscopy reveals that LRT2 efficiently catalyses the cis/trans isomerization of OsIAA11. The lrt2 mutation reduces OsTIR1-OsIAA11 interaction and consequently causes the accumulation of a higher level of OsIAA11 protein. Moreover, knockdown of the OsIAA11 expression partially rescues the lrt2 mutant phenotype in lateral root development. Together, these results illustrate cyclophilin-catalysed peptidyl-prolyl isomerization promotes Aux/IAA degradation, as a mechanism regulating auxin signalling.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits726Downloads383 Comment 0

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