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Study of linearity of LYSO crystal for HERD calorimeter

Zheng Quan; Zhi-gang Wang; Ming Xu; Yong-wei Dong; Jun-jing Wang; Guang-peng An; Xin Liu; Tian-wei Bao; Li Zhang; Rui-jie Wang; Jun-guang Lv; Bo-bing Wu; Shuang-nan ZhangSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

The High Energy cosmic Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is a space mission designed for detecting cosmic ray (CR) electrons, γ-rays up to tens of TeV and CR nuclei from proton to iron up to several PeV. The main instrument of HERD is a 3-D imaging calorimeter (CALO) composed of nearly ten thousand cubic LYSO crystals. A large dynamic range of single HERD CALO Cell (HCC) is necessary to achieve HERD’s PeV observation objectives, which means that the response of HCC should maintain a good linearity from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) calibration to PeV shower maximum. In order to study the linearity of HCC over such a large energy range, a beam test has been implemented at the E2 and E3 beam lines of BEPC. High intensity pulsed electron beam provided by E2 line are used for producing high energy density within HCC; π+/proton provided by E3 line are used for HCC calibration. The results show that no saturation e?ect occurs and the linearity of HCC is better than 10% from 30 MeV (1 MIP) to 1.1×103 TeV (energy density is 93 TeV/cm3), which can meet the requirement mentioned above. |

Real stabilization method for nuclear single particle resonances

Li Zhang; Shan-Gui Zhou; Jie Meng; En-Guang ZhaoSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We develop the real stabilization method within the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) model. With the self-consistent nuclear potentials from the RMF model, the real stabilization method is used to study single-particle resonant states in spherical nuclei. As examples, the energies, widths and wave functions of low-lying neutron resonant states in 120Sn are obtained. These results are compared with those from the scattering phase shift method and the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach and satisfactory agreements are found. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We study the dynamic changes of electron energy distribution (EED) through systematically analysing the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in different states. With Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique we model fourteen SEDs of 3C 279 using a leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED). The 14 SEDs can be satisfactorily fitted with the one-zone leptonic model. The observed?γ?rays in 13 states are attributed to Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. The curved?γ-ray spectrum observed during 2-8 April 2014 is well explained by the external Compton of dust radiation. It is found that there is a clear positive correlation between the curvature parameter?b?of the EED and the electron peak energy?γ′pk. No clear correlation between?b?and the synchrotron peak frequency?νs?is found, due to the varied product of Doppler factor and fluid magnetic field from state to state. We interpret the correlation of?b?γ′pk?in a stochastic acceleration scenario. This positive correlation is in agreement with the prediction in the stage when the balance between acceleration and radiative cooling of the electrons is nearly established in the case of the turbulence spectral index?q=2. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Precise spectra of 3C 279 in the 0.5-70 keV range, obtained during two epochs of \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} observations, are analyzed using a near-equipartition model. We apply a one-zone leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED) to fit the \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} X-ray data, as well as simultaneous optical and \emph{Fermi}-LAT γ-ray data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is used to search the high-dimensional parameter space and evaluate the uncertainties on model parameters. We show that the two spectra can be successfully fit in near-equipartition conditions, defined by the ratio of the energy density of relativistic electrons to magnetic field ζe being close to unity. In both spectra, the observed X-rays are dominated by synchrotron-self Compton photons, and the observed γ rays are dominated by Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. Model parameters are well constrained. From the low state to the high state, both the curvature of the log-parabola width parameter and the synchrotron peak frequency significantly increase. The derived magnetic fields in the two states are nearly identical (?1\ G), but the Doppler factor in the high state is larger than that in the low state (?28 versus ?18). We derive that the gamma-ray emission site takes place outside the broad-line region, at ? 0.1 pc from the black hole, but within the dusty torus. Implications for 3C 279 as a source of high-energy cosmic-rays are discussed. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Fermi-LAT analyses show that the gamma-ray photon spectral indices Gamma_gamma of a large sample of blazars correlate with the vFv peak synchrotron frequency v_s according to the relation Gamma_gamma = d - k log v_s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between Gamma_gamma and peak Compton frequency v_C. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k = k_EC = 3b/4 for external Compton processes and k = k_SSC = 9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Corrections are made to the spectral-index diagrams for a low-energy power-law EED and departures from equipartition, as constrained by absolute jet power. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compton and external Compton scattered gamma-ray spectra from Ly alpha broad-line region and IR target photons. The Gamma_gamma vs. v_s behavior in the model depends strongly on b, with progressively and predictably weaker dependences on gamma-ray detection range, variability time, and isotropic gamma-ray luminosity. Implications for blazar unification and blazars as ultra-high energy cosmic-ray sources are presented. Arguments by Ghisellini et al. (2014) that the jet power exceeds the accretion luminosity depend on the doubtful assumption that we are viewing at the Doppler angle. |

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