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1. chinaXiv:201705.00521 [pdf]

A rapid and convenient method for detecting a broad spectrum of malignant cells from malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion of patients using a multifunctional NIR heptamethine dye

Tian, Y [Tian, Ying][ 1 ]; Sun, J [Sun, Jing][ 1 ]; Yan, HJ [Yan, Huaijiang][ 2 ]; Teng, ZG [Teng, Zhaogang][ 1 ]; Zeng, LY [Zeng, Leyong][ 3 ]; Liu, Y [Liu, Ying][ 1 ]; Li, YJ [Li, Yanjun][ 1 ]; Wang, JD [Wang, Jiandong][ 4 ]; Wang, SJ [Wang, Shouju][ 1 ]; Lu, GM [Lu, Guangming][ 1 ]
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Detection of malignant cells from malignant effusion is crucial to establish or adjust therapies of patients with cancer. The conventional qualitative detection in malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion is cytological analysis, which is time-consuming and complicated. Therefore, a faster and more convenient detection strategy is urgently needed. In this study, we report a rapid method to detect malignant cells from malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion (hydrothorax and ascites) of patients using IR-808, a tumor-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent heptamethine dye (tNRI dye), which exhibited superior labeling efficacy without specific conjugation to biomarkers. The targeted imaging performance toward malignant cells using IR-808 was confirmed by comparing with normal cells, and the fluorescence stability assay of IR- 808 in malignant effusion was performed from 1 h to 48 h. In order to save time and dose, the incubation time and concentration were optimized to 10 min and 5 mM, which were used to detect malignant cells from 28 clinical samples of malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion. The results revealed that IR-808 could be internalized selectively by malignant cells of samples, and these malignant cells could be easily distinguished from normal cells under a fluorescence microscope. The positive rates between cytological analysis and the IR-808 staining method were 86% (24/28) and 79% (22/28), respectively. An excellent concordance level (Kappa 1?4 0.752, P < 0.001) was observed between the two methods. Our results indicated that IR-808, a new NIR fluorescent heptamethine dye with unique optical imaging and tumor targeting properties, could provide a fast and simple way to detect a broad spectrum of malignant cells from malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion in patients.

submitted time 2017-05-02 Hits2430Downloads435 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201612.00113 [pdf]


Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Chi; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.(); Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui1()
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20-30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun-Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an. axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a "best" strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits2038Downloads809 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201612.00111 [pdf]


Zhu, Bei; Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

We study the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme solar storm, for which Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the spacecraft at L1 provide multi-point remote sensing and in situ observations. The extreme solar storm, with a superfast shock and extremely enhanced ejecta magnetic fields observed near 1 au at STEREO A, was caused by the combination of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Meanwhile, energetic particles were observed by STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft such as the Advanced Composition Explorer and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory, suggesting a wide longitudinal spread of the particles at 1 au. Combining the SEP observations with in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements, we investigate the longitudinal distribution of the SEP event in connection with the associated shock and CMEs. Our results underscore the complex magnetic configuration of the inner heliosphere formed by solar eruptions. Examination of particle intensities, proton anisotropy distributions, element abundance ratios, magnetic connectivity, and spectra also gives important clues for particle acceleration, transport, and distribution.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits2160Downloads768 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201612.00086 [pdf]


Liu, Ying D.; Richardson, John D.; Wang, Chi; Luhmann, Janet G.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

In 2012 March the Sun exhibited extraordinary activities. In particular, the active region NOAA AR 11429 emitted a series of large coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which were imaged by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory as it rotated with the Sun from the east to west. These sustained eruptions are expected to generate a global shell of disturbed material sweeping through the heliosphere. A cluster of shocks and interplanetary CMEs were observed near the Earth, and are propagated outward from 1 AU using an MHD model. The transient streams interact with each other, which erases memory of the source and results in a large merged interaction region (MIR) with a preceding shock. The MHD model predicts that the shock and MIR would reach 120 AU around 2013 April 22, which agrees well with the period of radio emissions and the time of a transient disturbance in galactic cosmic rays detected by Voyager 1. These results are important for understanding the "fate" of CMEs in the outer heliosphere and provide confidence that the heliopause is located around 120 AU from the Sun.

submitted time 2016-12-22 Hits1791Downloads748 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01740 [pdf]

Aberrantly upregulated TRAP1 is required for tumorigenesis of breast cancer

Zhang, Bo; Wei, Peng; Hao, Junfeng; Zhao, Lijing; Zhang, Fenglin; Wei, Taotao; Wang, Jing; Huang, Zhen; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Tu, Yaping
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Oncology

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is abnormally expressed in many cancers. In this study, we showed that TRAP1 is aberrantly upregulated in breast tumors compared to control tissues. TRAP1 knockdown downregulates mitochondrial aerobic respiratory, sensitizes cells to lethal stimuli, and inhibited tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vivo. TRAP1 overexpression, however, enhances the capacity to cope with stress conditions. These evidences suggested that TRAP1 is required for tumorigenesis. We also found that TRAP1 regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Relatively lower TRAP1 levels are associated with the rod-shaped mitochondrial phenotype in invasive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; on the contrary, higher TRAP1 levels are associated with the tubular network-shaped mitochondrial phenotype in non-invasive MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, the expression of TRAP1 in human breast cancer specimens inversely correlates with tumor grade. Overexpression of TRAP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells causes mitochondrial fusion, triggers mitochondria to form tubular networks, and suppresses cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. These data link TRAP1-regulated mitochondrial dynamics and function with tumorigenesis of breast cancer and suggested that TRAP1 may therefore be a potential target for breast cancer drug development.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits3679Downloads1374 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01577 [pdf]


Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with D-st minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively;(2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm;and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the "perfect storm" scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the "perfect storm" scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1585Downloads835 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01575 [pdf]


Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1151Downloads683 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01571 [pdf]


Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Dai, Xinghua; Yang, Zhongwei; Huang, Chong; Hu, Huidong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

We study the role of the coronal magnetic field configuration of an active region (AR) in determining the propagation direction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME occurred in the AR 11944 (S09W01) near the disk center on 2014 January 7 and was associated with an X1.2 flare. A new CME reconstruction procedure based on a polarimetric technique is adopted, which shows that the CME changed its propagation direction by around 28 degrees in latitude within 2.5 R-circle dot and 43 degrees in longitude within 6.5 R-circle dot with respect to the CME source region. This significant non-radial motion is consistent with the finding of Mostl et al. We use nonlinear force-free field and potential field source surface extrapolation methods to determine the configurations of the coronal magnetic field. We also calculate the magnetic energy density distributions at different heights based on the extrapolations. Our results show that the AR coronal magnetic field has a strong influence on the CME propagation direction. This is consistent with the "channeling" by the AR coronal magnetic field itself, rather than deflection by nearby structures. These results indicate that the AR coronal magnetic field configuration has to be taken into account in order to determine CME propagation direction correctly.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1298Downloads732 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01562 [pdf]


Yang, Zhongwei; Liu, Ying D.; Richardson, John D.; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Rui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Voyager 2 (V2) observed multiple crossings of the heliospheric termination shock (TS) on 2007 August 31-September 1 at a distance of 84 AU from the Sun. Here, for the first time, we present two-dimensional particle-incell (PIC) simulations of the TS self-consistently including pickup ions (PUIs), and compare the simulation results with V2 observations. We find that (1) PUIs play a key role in the energy dissipation of the TS, and most of the incident ion kinetic energy is transferred to the thermal energy of PUIs. The PIC simulation indicates that, for the upstream parameters chosen for V2 conditions, the density of PUIs is about 25% and the PUIs gain the largest fraction (approximately 86.6%) of downstream thermal pressure. (2) The simulated heliosheath ion distribution function is a superposition of a cold core formed by transmitted solar wind ions (SWIs), with the shoulders contributed by the hot reflected SWIs and directly transmitted PUIs, and the wings of the distribution dominated by the very hot reflected PUIs. The V2 Faraday cups observed the cool core of the distribution, and so they only saw the tip of the iceberg. (3) The nonstationarity of the shock front is mainly caused by ripples along the shock front which form even if the percentage of PUIs is high. These simulation results agree reasonably well with the V2 experimental data. The relevance of the shock front ripples to the multiple TS crossings observed by V2 is also discussed in this paper.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1437Downloads697 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01518 [pdf]

Homoharringtonine induces apoptosis and inhibits STAT3 via IL-6/JAK1/STAT3 signal pathway in Gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells

Cao, Wei; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xianbing; Mei, Lin; Chen, Hongbo; Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Laiqiang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Teng; Zhu, Xianbing; Mei, Lin; Chen, Hongbo; Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Laiqiang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Teng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are mostly used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Unfortunately, treatment with Gefitinib for a period of time will result in drug resistance and cause treatment failure in clinic. Therefore, exploring novel compounds to overcome this resistance is urgently required. Here we investigated the antitumor effect of homoharringtonine (HHT), a natural compound extracted from Cephalotaxus harringtonia, on Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. NCI-H1975 cells with EGFR T790M mutation are more sensitive to HHT treatment compared with that of A549 cells with wild type EGFR. HHT inhibited cells growth, cell viability and colony formation, as well as induced cell apoptosis through mitochondria pathway. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of HHT inhibition on NSCLC cells. Higher level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) existed in lung cancer patients and mutant EGFR and TGF beta signal requires the upregulation of IL-6 through the gp130/JAK pathway to overactive STAT3, an oncogenic protein which has been considered as a potential target for cancer therapy. HHT reversiblely inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 Tyrosine 705 phosphorylation and reduced anti-apoptotic proteins expression. Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effect of HHT in vivo. Consequently, HHT has the potential in Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC treatment.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1857Downloads956 Comment 0

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