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1. chinaXiv:201909.00009 [pdf]

Effects of different tillage and straw retention practices on soil aggregates and carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils of the northwestern China

WU Jun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil tillage and straw retention in dryland areas may affect the soil aggregates and the distribution of total organic carbon. The aims of this study were to establish how different tillage and straw retention practices affect the soil aggregates and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in the aggregate fractions based on a long-term (approximately 15 years) field experiment in the semi-arid western Loess Plateau, northwestern China. The experiment included four soil treatments, i.e., conventional tillage with straw removed (T), conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS), no tillage with straw removed (NT) and no tillage with straw retention (NTS), which were arranged in a complete randomized block design. The wet-sieving method was used to separate four size fractions of aggregates, namely, large macroaggregates (LA, >2000 μm), small macroaggregates (SA, 250–2000 μm), microaggregates (MA, 53–250 μm), and silt and clay (SC, <53 μm). Compared to the conventional tillage practices (including T and TS treatments), the percentages of the macroaggregate fractions (LA and SA) under the conservation tillage practices (including NT and NTS treatments) were increased by 41.2%–56.6%, with the NTS treatment having the greatest effect. For soil layers of 0–5, 5–10 and 10–30 cm, values of the mean weight diameter (MWD) under the TS and NTS treatments were 10.68%, 13.83% and 17.65%, respectively. They were 18.45%, 19.15% and 14.12% higher than those under the T treatment, respectively. The maximum contents of the aggregate-associated SOC and TN were detected in the SA fraction, with the greatest effect being observed for the NTS treatment. The SOC and TN contents were significantly higher under the NTS and TS treatments than under the T treatment. Also, the increases in SOC and TN levels were much higher in the straw-retention plots than in the straw-removed plots. The macroaggregates (including LA and SA fractions) were the major pools for SOC and TN, regardless of tillage practices, storing 3.25–6.81 g C/kg soil and 0.34–0.62 g N/kg soil. Based on the above results, we recommend the NTS treatment as the best option to boost soil aggregates and to reinforce carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils in the semi-arid western Loess Plateau of northwestern China.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9566Downloads729 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201712.00241 [pdf]


Wu Jun
Subjects: Mathematics >> Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

本文利用代数和组合的相关理论对超平面配置理论的自由性做出了相关研究,给出圈图所对应的图配置的生成元和导模的具体形式,并以图论的形式对圈图配置的导模及其自由解做出相关的组合解 释.

submitted time 2017-12-22 Hits1742Downloads1059 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01735 [pdf]

PTEN deficiency reprogrammes human neural stem cells towards a glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotype

Duan, Shunlei; Yuan, Guohong; Ren, Ruotong; Xu, Xiuling; Fu, Lina; Li, Ying; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Weiqi; Liu, Guang-Hui; Liu, Xiaomeng; Li, Jingyi; Tang, Fuchou; Ren, Ruotong; Bai, Ruijun; Liu, Guang-Hui; Ren, Ruotong; Bai, Ruijun; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Weizhou; Wu, Jun
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficientmice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates 'aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits3460Downloads1461 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01464 [pdf]

Regenerative medicine: targeted genome editing in vivo

Wang, Lixia; Liu, Guang-Hui; Wu, Jun; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Fang, Weiwei; Liu, Guang-Hui; Liu, Guang-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

The CRISPR/Cas system has proven to be a powerful gene editing tool both in vitro and in vivo. A recent flurry of studies of in vivo gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas system bring bright prospects in creating animal models and targeted gene therapy of human genetic diseases.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1999Downloads1117 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01385 [pdf]

CRISPR/Cas9 and TALE: beyond cut and paste

Deng, Liping; Ren, Ruotong; Liu, Guang-Hui; Wu, Jun; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Belmote, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Liu, Guang-Hui; Liu, Guang-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

Nuclease-based genome editing has proven to be a powerful and promising tool for disease modeling and gene therapy. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas and TALE indicate that they could also be used as a targeted regulator of gene expression, as well as being utilized for illuminating specific chromosomal structures or genomic regions.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1422Downloads806 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01363 [pdf]

Selective Elimination of Mitochondrial Mutations in the Germline by Genome Editing

Reddy, Pradeep; Ocampo, Alejandro; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Luo, Jinping; Sugawara, Atsushi; Okamura, Daiji; Wu, Jun; Lam, David; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Bacman, Sandra R.; Williams, Sion L.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Tsunekawa, Yuji; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin; Montserrat, Nuria; Liu, Guang-Hui; Liu, Guang-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Mitochondrial diseases include a group of maternally inherited genetic disorders caused by mutations in mtDNA. In most of these patients, mutated mtDNA coexists with wild-type mtDNA, a situation known as mtDNA heteroplasmy. Here, we report on a strategy toward preventing germline transmission of mitochondrial diseases by inducing mtDNA heteroplasmy shift through the selective elimination of mutated mtDNA. As a proof of concept, we took advantage of NZB/BALB heteroplasmic mice, which contain two mtDNA haplotypes, BALB and NZB, and selectively prevented their germline transmission using either mitochondria-targeted restriction endonucleases or TALENs. In addition, we successfully reduced human mutated mtDNA levels responsible for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHOND), and neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), in mammalian oocytes using mitochondria-targeted TALEN (mito-TALENs). Our approaches represent a potential therapeutic avenue for preventing the trans-generational transmission of human mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in mtDNA.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2305Downloads764 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.00772 [pdf]

Modeling xeroderma pigmentosum associated neurological pathologies with patients-derived iPSCs

Fu, Lina; Xu, Xiuling; Ren, Ruotong; Zhang, Weiqi; Yang, Jiping; Ren, Xiaoqing; Wang, Si; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Guang-Hui; Ren, Ruotong; Zhang, Weiqi; Liu, Guang-Hui; Qu, Jing; Wu, Jun; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Wu, Jun; Sun, Liang; Yang, Ze; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a group of genetic disorders caused by mutations of XP-associated genes, resulting in impairment of DNA repair. XP patients frequently exhibit neurological degeneration, but the underlying mechanism is unknown, in part due to lack of proper disease models. Here, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) harboring mutations in five different XP genes including XPA, XPB, XPC, XPG, and XPV. These iPSCs were further differentiated to neural cells, and their susceptibility to DNA damage stress was investigated. Mutation of XPA in either neural stem cells (NSCs) or neurons resulted in severe DNA damage repair defects, and these neural cells with mutant XPA were hyper-sensitive to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Thus, XP-mutant neural cells represent valuable tools to clarify the molecular mechanisms of neurological abnormalities in the XP patients.

submitted time 2016-05-05 Hits1381Downloads745 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.00759 [pdf]

Difference of language cortex reorganization between cerebral arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and gliomas: a functional MRI study

Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Ye, Xun; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Jizong; Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Ye, Xun
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in language cortex reorganization between cerebral malformations (AVMs), cavernous malformations (CMs), and gliomas by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and imaging data of 27 AVM patients (AVM-L group), 29 CM patients (CM-L group), and 20 glioma patients (Glioma-L group) were retrospectively reviewed, with lesions overlying the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca area). As a control, patients with lesions involving the right inferior frontal gyrus were also enrolled, including 14 AVM patients (AVM-R group), 20 CM patients (CM-R group), and 14 glioma patients (Glioma-R group). All patients were right-handed. Lateralization indices (LI) of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for Broca and Wernicke areas. In AVM-L group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signals was observed in 10 patients (37.0 %), including 6 in the Broca area alone, 1 in the Wernicke area alone, and 3 in both areas. Three patients (10.3 %) of CM-L group showed right-sided lateralization in both Broca and Wernicke areas, and 1 patient (5.0 %) of Glioma-L group had right-sided lateralization in the Wernicke area alone. A significant difference of right-sided lateralization was observed between the AVM-L group and CM-L group (P = 0.018) and also between the AVM-L group and Glioma-L group (P = 0.027). No patient in AVM-R, CM-R, or Glioma-R groups showed right-sided lateralization. Language cortex reorganization may occur in AVM, CM, and glioma patients when the traditional language cortex was involved by lesions, but the potential of reorganization for CM and glioma patients seems to be insufficient compared with AVM patients.

submitted time 2016-05-05 Hits1331Downloads776 Comment 0

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