• Studying subthreshold resonance using the Trojan horse method

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-15

    摘要:The Trojan horse method was employed to indirectly measure the bare-nucleus reaction cross-section and astrophysical S-factor of the 9Be(p,α) 6Li reaction in the low-energy region , utilizing the three-body reaction 2H(9Be,α 6Li)n. Comparing the two-body reaction data extracted from the Trojan horse method with that obtained through direct measurements, compatibility is observed in the energy region above approximately 100 keV. Additionally, the THM data successfully reproduces the expected low-energy resonance peak around 270 keV. The THM extraction of the astrophysical factor yields S(0) = 21.0 ± 0.8 MeV b, which surpasses the extrapolation obtained from direct measurements. The 9Be(p,α) 6Li reaction channel exhibits a subthreshold resonance with a width of 25 keV, positioned approximately -23 keV below the threshold. However, the strong electron shielding effect near the zero energy position in direct measurements often masks the influence of the subthreshold resonance on the low-energy region. In contrast, the THM method allows us to neglect the electron shielding effect. The THM experimental data were subjected to fitting using the Breit-Wigner function and subsequently compared with directly measured data. Following a comprehensive comparative analysis, it was discerned that the S(0) value obtained through THM exceeded the extrapolated value derived from direct measurements. This disparity was primarily attributed to the influence of the subthreshold resonance.

  • 通过两极球形磁体实验解释单极感应问题

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2023-09-15


  • Measurements of Absolute Electron Capture Cross Sections in He2+ -He and Ne8+ -O2, N2, CH4 Collisions

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-13

    摘要:The total absolute cross sections of single- and double-electron capture (SEC and DEC) in the collisions of He2+ with He and Ne8+ with O2, N2, and CH4 were studied in the energy ranges 3.5 to 50 keV/u and 2.8 to 40 keV/u, respectively. Through a deep analysis of the experimental systematic uncertainties in the measurement procedure and data evaluation, the error in the experimental results of the SEC cross sections is less than 9%. Within the uncertainties, the present results of the He2+ -He collision show good consistency with previous measurements, validating the experimental system and paving the way for precise measurements of EC cross sections for a variety of ions and neutral gases. The present measurements allow for a test of EC theory and provide crucial EC cross section data for the establishment of plasma models in fusion research and astrophysical X-ray studies.

  • Development of a high-speed digital pulse signal acquisition and processing system based on MTCA for liquid scintillator neutron detector on EAST

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-13

    摘要:Abstract: In this experimental study, involving deuterium–deuterium fusion neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) measurement on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), a liquid scintillator detector (BC501A) was employed. This decision was based on the detector's superior sensitivity, optimal time-response, and its exceptional n-γ discrimination capability. This detector emits fast pulse signals that are as narrow as 100 ns, with high count rates that can peak at several Mcps. However, conventional nuclear circuits faced challenges in performing pulse height analysis, n–γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD), and in recording the entire pulse waveform under such high-count-rate conditions. To address these challenges, a high-speed digital pulse signal acquisition and processing system was designed. The system was developed around a micro-telecommunications computing architecture (MTCA). Within this structure, a signal acquisition and processing (SAQP) module communicated through PCI Express (PCIe) links, achieving a bandwidth of up to 1.6 GB/s. To accurately capture the detailed shape of the pulses, four channels of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) were used, each with a 500-MSPS sampling rate and a 14-bit resolution, ensuring an accuracy that surpassed 11 bits. An n-γ discrimination algorithm, based on the two-gate integral method, was also developed. Implemented within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), this algorithm provided a real-time n-γ discrimination spectrum for pulse height analysis. The system underwent rigorous testing in a laboratory setting and during an EAST experiment. The results confirmed that the innovative SAQP system can satisfy the demanding requirements of high-parameter experiments, manage count rates of up to 2 Mcps, execute real-time n-γ discrimination algorithms, and record entire pulse waveforms without any data loss.

  • Measurement of the Br(n,gamma) cross sections up to stellar s-process temperatures at the CSNS Back-n

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-12

    摘要:The neutron capture cross sections (${n, upgamma}$) of Bromine was performed with the time-of-flight (TOF) technique at the Back-n facility of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Prompt $ upgamma$-rays originating from neutron-induced capture events were detected by four C${}_6$D${}_6$ detectors. The pulse height weighting technique (PHWT) and the double-bunch unfolding method based on the Bayesian theory were used in the data analysis. To obtain reliable measurement results, background deductions, normalization, and corrections were carefully considered. The multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY was used to extract the resonance parameters in the resolved resonance region (RRR). The average cross sections in unresolved resonance region the  was obtained from 10 to 400 keV. The experimental results were compared with the data of several evaluated libraries and previous experiments in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The TALYS code was used to describe the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. Astrophysical Maxwell average cross sections (MACSs) of ${}^{79,81}$Br from $ kT $ = 5 to 100 keV was calculated over a sufficiently wide range of neutron energies. At a thermal energy of $kT=30$ keV, the MACS value for ${}^{79}$Br 638$ pm$64 mb is in good agreement with the KADoNiS recommended value. By contrast, the value of 293$ pm$29 mb for ${}^{81}$Br is substantially higher than those of the evaluated database and the KADoNiS recommended value.

  • Pulse-shaping method for real-time neutron/gamma discrimination at low sampling rates

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-11

    摘要:The NaI:Tl scintillator is an innovative material for dual-gamma-ray and neutron detection with a low 6Li concentration. To achieve real-time n/γ discrimination, a zero-crossing time comparison algorithm based on trapezoidal pulse shaping was developed. The algorithm can operate efficiently at low sampling rates and was implemented on a single-probe portable digital n/γ discriminator based on a feld-programmable gate array (FPGA). The discriminator and NaI:Tl,6Li detector were tested in a neutron-gamma mixed field produced by an 241Am-Be neutron source to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The Figure of Merits (FoM) was measured as 2.88 at a sampling rate of 50 MHz, indicating that the discriminator with its embedded algorithm has a promising n/γ discrimination capability. Efficient discrimination at sampling rates of 40 and 25 MHz demonstrates that the capability of this method is not limited by low sampling rates.

  • 用于 HIAF-HFRS 装置的飞行时间探测器样机性能研究

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-11

    摘要:本工作制作了一套由快发光塑料闪烁体耦合快光电倍增管组成的塑料闪烁体飞行时间探测器的样机,通过皮秒脉冲激光测试了探测器的时间性能,旨在为将来的 HIAF-HFRS 飞行时间探测器作预研。对于两种不同尺寸的塑闪探测器,通过改变激光的光斑大小、频率、光强和位置等各项参数来模拟真实束流的情况,并使用 CAEN-DT5742 数字化仪以及 Mesytec-MCFD16+MTDC32 电子学系统进行了系统的测试。使用聚焦激光照射在塑闪中心位置时,小尺寸 (7 cm×7 cm) 塑闪探测器的 ToF 分辨最好可达 8 ps;小-大 (26 cm×10 cm) 塑闪探测器的 TOF 分辨最好可达到 12 ps。在改变激光各项参数后,得到的响应时间分辨为 10–16 ps 和 19–46 ps。测试结果表明,所得到的 ToF 分辨满足 HFRS 束线的时间分辨性能要求,为飞行时间探测器的优化奠定了基础。

  • Simulation of a soft-gamma-ray polarimeter on board a microsatellite

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-11

    摘要:Gamma-ray polarimetry is a new and prospective tool for studying various extreme high-energy celestial objects and is of great significance for the development of astrophysics. With the rapid development of microsatellite technology, the advantages in space exploration are becoming increasingly apparent. Therefore, in this paper, we conducted a simulation study on a soft gamma-ray polarimeter for a microsatellite in space. Here, we proposed a unique design structure for the polarimeter based on the microsatellite design concept and the Compton scattering principle. And then, the detailed Monte Carlo simulations using mono-energetic gamma-ray linear polarization sources and the Crab-like sources in the energy range of 0.1-10 MeV with full consideration of the orbital background were performed. The simulation results show that the polarimeter can exhibit excellent polarization detection performance. The modulation factor is 0.80±0.01, and the polarization angles are accurate within an error of 0.2° at 200 keV for on-axis incidence. For the Crab-like sources for on-axis incidence, the polarization degrees are consistent with the set values within the error tolerance, the modulation factor is 0.76±0.01, and the minimum detectable polarization reaches 2.4% at 3σ for an observation time of 106 seconds. In addition, the polarimeter has recoil electron tracking, imaging, and powerful background suppression at a large field of view (∼2π sr). The polarimeter designed can meet the requirements of a space-soft gamma-ray polarization detector very well and has a bright research prospect.

  • The trigger system for the CSR external-target experiment

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-11

    摘要:A trigger system has been designed and implemented for the HIRFL-CSR external target experiment (CEE), the spectrometer for studying nuclear matter properties with heavy ion collisions in the GeV energy region. The system adopts master-slave structure and serial data transmission mode using optical fiber to deal with different types of detectors and long-distance signal transmission. The trigger logic can be accessed based on command register and controlled by a remote computer. The overall field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic can be flexibly reconfigured online to  match the physical requirements of the experiment. The trigger system has been tested in beam experiment. It is demonstrated that the trigger system functions correctly and meets the physical requirements of CEE. 

  • 因果对称的经典质点动力学方程

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2023-09-10


  • Predictions of nuclear charge radii based on the convolutional neural network

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-07

    摘要:In this study, we developed a neural network that incorporates a fully connected layer with a convolutional layer to predict the nuclear charge radii based on the relationships between four local nuclear charge radii.
    The convolutional neural network (CNN) combines the isospin and pairing effects to describe the charge radii of nuclei with $A geq $ 39 and $Z geq $ 20. The developed neural network achieved a root--mean--square (RMS) deviation of 0.0195 fm for a dataset with 928 nuclei. Specifically, the CNN reproduced the trend of the inverted parabolic behavior and odd--even staggering observed in the calcium isotopic chain, demonstrating reliable predictive capability.

  • Numerical and Theoretical Investigations of Heat Transfer Characteristics in Helium–Xenon Cooled Microreactor Core

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-07

    摘要:Helium–xenon cooled microreactors are a vital technological solution for portable nuclear reactor power sources. To examine the convective heat transfer behavior of helium–xenon gas mixtures in a core environment, numerical simulations are conducted on a cylindrical coolant channel and its surrounding solid regions. Validated numerical methods are used to determine the effect and mechanisms of power and its distribution, inlet temperature and velocity, and outlet pressure on the distribution and change trend of the axial Nusselt number. Furthermore, a theoretical framework that can describe the effect of power variation on the evolution of the thermal boundary layer is employed to formulate an axial distribution correlation for the Nusselt number of the coolant channel, under the assumption of a cosine distribution for the axial power. Based on the simulation results, the correlation coefficients are determined, and a semi-empirical relationship is identified under the corresponding operating conditions. The correlation derived in this study is consistent with the simulations, with an average relative error of 5.3% under the operating conditions. Finally, to improve the accuracy of the predictions near the entrance, a segmented correlation is developed by combining the Kays correlation with the aforementioned correlation. The new correlation reduces the average relative error to 2.9% and maintains satisfactory accuracy throughout the entire axial range of the channel, thereby demonstrating its applicability to turbulent heat transfer calculations for helium–xenon gas mixtures within the core environment. These findings provide valuable insights into the convective heat transfer behavior of a helium–xenon gas mixture in a core environment.

  • Thermodynamic properties at the kinetic freeze-out in the Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at the RHIC using the Tsallis distribution

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-07

    摘要:The thermodynamic properties of charged particles, such as the energy density, pressure, entropy density, particle density, and squared speed of sound at the kinetic freeze-out in the $ mathrm{Au+Au}$ collisions from the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) beam energy scan program ($ sqrt{s_ text{NN}}$=7.7--200 GeV) and in the $ mathrm{Cu+Cu}$ collisions at $ sqrt{s_ text{NN}}$=62.4, 200 GeV are studied using the thermodynamically consistent Tsallis distribution. The energy density, pressure, and particle density decrease monotonically with the collision energy for the same collision centrality; These properties also decrease monotonically from the central to peripheral collisions at the same collision energy. While the scaled energy density $ varepsilon/T^4$ and scaled entropy density $s/T^3$ demonstrate the opposite trend with the collision energy for the same collision centrality. There is a correlation between $ varepsilon/T^4$ and $s/T^3$ at the same centrality. In addition, the squared speed of sound was calculated to determine that all the collision energies share nearly the same value at different collision centralities.

  • Development of aperiodic multilayer mirrors operated at W-Lbeta line for plasma diagnostics application

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-07

    摘要:Multilayer interference mirrors play a pivotal role in spectroscopic diagnostic systems, which probe electron temperature and density during inertial confinement fusion processes. In this study, aperiodic Mo/B4C multilayer mirrors of varied thicknesses were investigated for X-ray plasma diagnostics at the 9.67-keV W-Lbeta line. The thickness distribution of the aperiodic multilayers was designed using the 1st Bragg diffraction condition and then optimized through a simplex algorithm to realize a narrow bandwidth and consistent spectral response. To enhance spectral accuracy, further refinements were undertaken by matching the grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity data with actual structural parameters. X-ray reflectivity measurements from the SSRF synchrotron radiation facility on the optimized sample showed a reflectivity of 29.7% ±2.6%, flat-band range of 1.3 keV, and bandwidth of 1.7 keV, making it suitable for high-temperature plasma diagnostics. The study explored the potential of predicting the 9.67 keV reflectivity spectrum using the fitting data from the Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXRR) curves at 8.05 keV. Additionally, the short-term thermal stability of an aperiodic multilayer was assessed using temperature-dependent in situ X-ray measurements. Shifts in the reflectivity spectrum during annealing were attributed to interdiffusion and interfacial relaxation. The research team recommends the aperiodic Mo/B4C multilayer mirror for operations below 300 ℃.

  • X-ray computed tomography reconstruction algorithm for refractive index gradient

    分类: 物理学 >> 电磁学、光学、声学、传热、经典力学和流体动力学 提交时间: 2023-09-06

    摘要:The aim of this research is to reconstruct the 3D X-ray refractive index gradient maps by the proposed vector Radon transform and its inverse, assuming that the small-angle deviation condition is met. Theoretical analyses show that the X-ray beam can be modeled as a streamline with continuous change of direction in a row when measured in one grating period, which allows the extraction of the refraction angle signals. Experimental results show that all the 2D refraction signals of different directions can be acquired by a standard circular scanning procedure, which is typically used in the X-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography. Furthermore, the 3D refractive index gradient maps that contain the directional density changes, can also be accurately reconstructed.

  • Novel algorithm for detection and identification of radioactive materials in an urban environment

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2023-09-05

    摘要:This study introduces a novel algorithm to detect and identify radioactive materials in urban settings using time-series detector response data. To address the challenges posed by varying backgrounds and to enhance the quality and reliability of the energy spectrum data, we devised a temporal energy window. This partitioned the time-series detector response data, resulting in energy spectra that emphasize the vital information pertaining to radioactive materials. We then extracted characteristic features of these energy spectra, relying on the formation mechanism and measurement principles of the gamma-ray instrument spectrum. These features encompassed aggregated counts, peak-to-flat ratios, and peak-to-peak ratios. This methodology not only simplified the interpretation of the energy spectra’s physical significance but also eliminated the necessity for peak searching and individual peak analyses. Given the requirements of imbalanced multi-classification, we created a detection and identification model using a weighted k-nearest neighbors (KNN) framework. This model recognized that energy spectra of identical radioactive materials exhibit minimal inter-class similarity. Consequently, it considerably boosted the classification accuracy of minority classes, enhancing the classifier’s overall efficacy. We also executed a series of comparative experiments. Established methods for radionuclide identification classification, such as standard k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), Bayesian network, and
    random tree, were used for comparison purposes. Our proposed algorithm realized an F1 measure of 0.9868 on the time-series detector response data, reflecting a minimum enhancement of 0.3% in comparison to other techniques. The results conclusively show that our algorithm outperforms others when applied to time-series detector response data in urban contexts.

  • Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Pulse Shape Discrimination in 2πα and 2πβ Particle Surface Emission Rate Measurements

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2023-09-05

    摘要:To enhance the accuracy of 2πα and 2πβ particle surface emission rate measurements and address the identification issues of nuclides in conventional methods, this study introduces two artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms: back propagation (BP) and genetic algorithm-based back propagation (GA-BP). These algorithms classify pulse signals from distinct α and β particles. Their discrimination efficacy is assessed by simulating standard pulse signals and those produced by contaminated sources, mixing α and β particles within the detector. This study initially showcases energy spectrum measurement outcomes, subsequently tests the ANNs on the measurement and validation datasets, and contrasts the pulse shape discrimination efficacy of both algorithms. Experimental findings reveal that the proportional counter's energy resolution is not ideal, thus rendering energy analysis insufficient for distinguishing between 2πα and 2πβ particles. The BP neural network realizes approximately 99% accuracy for 2πα particles and approximately 95% for 2πβ particles, thus surpassing the GA-BP's performance. Additionally, the results suggest enhancing β particle discrimination accuracy by increasing the digital acquisition card's threshold lower limit. This study offers an advanced solution for the 2πα and 2πβ surface emission rate measurement method, presenting superior adaptability and scalability over conventional techniques.

  • CFD analysis of a CiADS fuel assembly during the steam generator tube rupture accident based on the LBEsteamEulerFoam

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-04

    摘要:Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident is an important scenario needed to be considered in the safety analysis of lead-based fast reactors. When the steam generator tube breaks close to the main pump, water vapor will enter the reactor core, resulting in a two-phase flow of heavy liquid metal and water vapor in fuel assemblies. The thermal-hydraulic problems caused by the SGTR accident may seriously threaten reactor core’s safety performance. In this paper, the open source CFD calculation software OpenFOAM was used to encapsulate the improved Euler method into the self-developed solver LBEsteamEulerFoam. By changing different heating boundary conditions and inlet coolant types, the two-phase flow in the fuel assembly with different inlet gas content was simulated under various accident conditions. The calculation results show that the water vapor may accumulate in edge and corner channels. With the increase of inlet water vapor content, outlet coolant velocity increases gradually. When the inlet water vapor content is more than 15%, the outlet coolant temperature rises sharply with strong temperature fluctuation. When the inlet water vapor content is in the range of 5% to 20%, the upper part of the fuel assembly will gradually accumulate to form large bubbles. Compared with the VOF method, Euler method has higher computational efficiency. However, Euler method may cause an underestimation of the void fraction, so it still needs to be calibrated with future experimental data of the two-phase flow in fuel assembly.

  • 基于HI-13串列加速器的核天体物理研究

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-04 合作期刊: 《核技术》

    摘要: 中国原子能科学研究院核天体物理研究组在HI-13串列加速器核物理国家实验室建成了我国首条低能放射性次级束流线,产生了从6He到22Na等11种放射性核束,利用这些放射性束流通过测量逆运动学转移反应开展了一系列核天体物理重要反应的研究,另外还通过厚靶实验方法和电荷交换反应开展了天体物理相关重要核结构信息的研究。在串列加速器Q3D磁谱仪上,利用稳定束测量了许多单核子转移和α基团转移的角分布,基于渐进归一化系数(Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient,ANC)或谱因子方法得到了一系列天体物理关键反应的天体物理S因子和反应率,为元素丰度、天体模型等相关研究提供了重要实验依据。

  • HI-13串列加速器运维35周年的实践与创新

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-09-04 合作期刊: 《核技术》

    摘要: 北京串列加速器核物理国家实验室HI-13串列加速器(以下简称串列加速器)投入运行已有35周年的时间了。为了保持这台加速器的性能,运维团队以保障加速器的运行能力为中心,分别从攻克加速器关键部件研制、培养好运维人员队伍以及提高机时利用效率等几个方面开展了工作。其中,重点阐述了关键部件研制及子系统的升级改造。通过这些工作的开展,保持并提升了这台加速器的性能,加速器也处于良好的安全稳定运行状态。最后,指出了串列加速器所面临的问题及未来的发展规划。