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1. chinaXiv:201910.00029 [pdf]

Stand up to Action: The Postural Effect of Moral Dilemma Decision-Making and the Moderating Role of Dual Processes

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent and save five or more people. The participants in sitting or standing postures were asked whether the described action was morally acceptable (moral judgment) and whether they would perform the described action (moral action). The results demonstrated that participants were more approving of the behavioral proposal in the moral action perspective than in the moral judgment perspective across the three studies. The hypothesized postural effect was found in a field study (Study 1) and replicated in a pre-registered replication study (Study 2) and further supported in an experimental study (Study 3). Compared with those in sitting postures, participants in standing postures expressed higher approval of the behavioral proposal compared to their sitting counterparts. Furthermore, the postural effect was dismissed when participants made moral decisions with a dual task to increase cognitive load, and it was reversed when they made moral decisions after deliberate consideration of the behavioral proposal (Study 3). The present research supports and extends the dual-process morality theory by demonstrating that body posture can affect moral decision-making; it also offers novel evidence revealing the moderating role of dual process on embodiment effects. It enriches our knowledge that morality is evolutionarily embodied in postures and that the dual process can moderate embodiment effects.

submitted time 2021-01-28 Hits20301Downloads1488 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00082 [pdf]

发展性阅读障碍的听觉时间加工缺陷

王润洲; 毕鸿燕
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

发展性阅读障碍是指个体在智力正常并且不缺乏学校教育的情况下,仍无法获得与年龄相匹配的阅读技能的一种学习障碍,其缺陷的本质一直是研究者争论的焦点。大量研究显示,阅读障碍者常表现出听觉时间加工损伤。在行为层面,阅读障碍者难以辨别快速、连续呈现刺激的顺序以及刺激本身的动态时间特征。在神经层面,阅读障碍者诱发的失匹配负波更弱且具有异常的神经同步加工。这些损伤同时存在于对言语和非言语刺激的加工中,表明听觉时间加工缺陷非言语加工所特有。未来的研究还需阐明以下几个问题:1)阅读障碍的听觉时间加工缺陷发生在哪些时间窗口,随年龄增长如何变化;2)阅读障碍听觉时间加工缺陷在神经层面的时间进程是怎样的;3)听觉时间加工缺陷是否为阅读障碍的核心缺陷。

submitted time 2021-01-27 Hits20Downloads13 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00080 [pdf]

两人和三人最后通牒博弈任务中嗓音吸引力对决策的影响

尚俊辰; 刘智慧; 王笑雨; 迟智超; 李卫君
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

本研究用两人和三人最后通牒博弈任务探究男性嗓音吸引力对决策的影响。实验1发现,高吸引力的嗓音会提高被试对不公平分配方案的接受率。实验2发现,即使分配方案对第三方接受者公平,对被试不公平,第三方接受者的高吸引力嗓音仍然会提高被试对方案的接受率。综上,嗓音吸引力可以诱发类似面孔吸引力的“美貌津贴”效应。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Hits93Downloads43 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00081 [pdf]

青少年早期抑郁和自伤的联合发展轨迹:人际因素的作用

黄垣成; 赵清玲; 李彩娜
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

通过对859名初中生历时3年的3次追踪测量, 考察了抑郁和自伤的独立与联合发展轨迹, 并对三种重要人际关系(亲子关系、同伴关系、师生关系)在二者联合发展中的作用进行检验。结果发现, 青少年早期抑郁和自伤分别呈现4条和3条异质性发展轨迹; 二者的联合发展轨迹包含“低抑郁-低自伤-稳定”、“低抑郁-低自伤-增长”、“中抑郁-中自伤-降低”三类; 父母心理控制和同伴接纳分别为青少年早期抑郁和自伤的风险与保护性因素。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Hits93Downloads44 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202101.00079 [pdf]

振动触觉频率信息的工作记忆容量及存储机制

王春地; 王大辉
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

工作记忆可以同时保存多个信息并且容量有限,这一内在机制是工作记忆研究的重点问题。视觉和言语等研究领域都发现工作记忆能够存储多个信息单元, 但对振动触觉工作记忆是否能存储多个频率信息目前尚无相关研究。由于振动触觉频率刺激和视觉刺激具有不同的神经编码机制,以及振动频率信息是通过躯体感觉产生的模拟的、单维的、参数化信息,振动触觉工作记忆容量及其加工存储机制的研究也必不可少。首先,本项目将采用新的实验范式,探究不同的刺激呈现方式以及不同反应报告方式下,振动触觉工作记忆的容量及其认知机制。其次,本项目也将同时运用功能磁共振成像(fMRI)技术,来阐述振动触觉工作记忆加工存储的神经机制。探究基于触觉频率信息的参数工作记忆容量及其神经机制是完善工作记忆模型的重要补充,将有助于提高我们对工作记忆系统的理解,并为视觉、听觉、触觉多模态感知觉信息的跨通道研究奠定基础。

submitted time 2021-01-25 Hits95Downloads41 Comment 0

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