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1. chinaXiv:201605.01837 [pdf]

Diversification and use of bioenergy to maintain future grasslands

Iain S. Donnison; Mariecia D. Fraser
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Botany research, experiment, plant evolution & development

Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities. This paper brings together different grass or grassland-based studies and considers them as part of a continuum of strategies that, when also combined with improvements in grassland production systems,will improve the overall efficiency of grasslands as an important natural resource and enable a greater area to be managed, replanted or conserved. These diversification options relate to those most likely to be available to farmers and land owners in the marginally economic or uneconomic grasslands of middle to northern Europe and specifically in the UK. Grasslands represent the predominant global land use and so these strategies are likely to be relevant to other areas although the grass species used may vary. The options covered include the use of biomass derived from the management of grasses in the urban and semi urban environment, semi-natural grassland systems as part of ecosystem management, pasture in addition to livestock production, and the planting and cropping of dedicated energy grasses. The adoption of such approaches would not only increase income from economically marginal grasslands, but would also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production and help fund conservation of these valuable grassland ecosystems and landscapes, which is increasingly becoming a challenge.

submitted time 2016-05-31 Hits11030Downloads1214 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01836 [pdf]

The CROPROTECT project and wider opportunities to improve farm productivity through web-based knowledge exchange

Toby J. A. Bruce
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Botany research, experiment, plant evolution & development

A key global 21st century challenge is to maximize agricultural production while minimizing use of resources such as land, water, and energy to meet rising demand for produce. To meet this challenge, while also adapting to climate change, agriculture will have to become more knowledge intensive and deploy smarter farming techniques. The intention of this study was to: (1)Highlight the opportunity for web-based knowledge exchange to increase farm productivity and thus contribute to achieving food and energy security, (2) Give some examples of online farming information services such as the “CROPROTECT” tool I am developing in the UK, the CABI “Plantwise” Knowledge Bank and the IRRI “Rice Doctor,” and (3) Consider lessons learnt so far.There are huge opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange through online systems for farmers and people who advise farmers. CROPROTECT is interacting with users to determine priorities in terms of the pests, weeds, and diseases covered and is providing key information to assist with their management. Knowledge is a critical input for farming systems. Crop protection in particular is becoming more difficult due to evolution of pest resistance and changes in legislation.Up to date information can be made rapidly available and shared online through websites and smartphone Apps. Agricultural extension no longer relies solely on physical meetings and printed documents. The capacity to share information via the Internet is tremendous with its potential to reach a wide audience in the farming community, to provide rapid updates and to interact more with the users. However, in an era of information deluge,accessing relevant information and ensuring reliability are essential considerations. There is also a need to bring science and farming communities together to turn information into relevant farming knowledge.

submitted time 2016-05-31 Hits10911Downloads1183 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01830 [pdf]

Flood and drought tolerance in rice: opposite but may coexist

A. N. M. Rubaiyath Bin Rahman; Jianhua Zhang
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

Flood and drought are the two most prevalent abiotic stresses causing major yield reduction globally. In the last decade, molecular mechanisms of flood tolerance in rice have been revealed with successful release of flash flood-tolerant varieties to farmers. However, despite extensive research, the breakthrough of drought tolerance is still to come. In this review, we have examined the distribution and population types of drought-and flood-tolerant rice accessions, synthesized recent progresses of flood and drought tolerance research, and proposed a hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms of both drought and flood tolerance may be regulated by cross-talked pathways and coexist in aus subpopulation.We conclude that it is the time to mine the key regulator(s) of drought tolerance through de novo assembly of drought-tolerant aus landrace(s) with other molecular approaches and develop drought-tolerant rice using genome manipulation weaponry.

submitted time 2016-05-30 Hits12334Downloads1538 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01827 [pdf]

Cellulose synthesis genes CESA6 and CSI1 are important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

Shuang-Shuang Zhang; Le Sun; Xinran Dong; Sun-Jie Lu; Weidong Tian; Jian-Xiang Liu
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Botany research, experiment, plant evolution & development

S.S.Z. performed the research with the help of L.S., X.D. and S.J.L. W.T. supervised the bioinformatics analysis. S.S.Z. and J.X.L. designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.

submitted time 2016-05-27 Hits10415Downloads876 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01819 [pdf]

Wide-bandwidth drift-scan pulsar surveys of globular clusters: application to early science observations with FAST

Lei, Zhang; George, Hobbs ; Di, Li; Duncan, Lorimer; Jie, Zhang; Meng, Yu; You-Ling, Yue; Pei, Wang; Zhi-Chen Pan; Shi, Dai
Subjects: Astronomy >> Astrophysical processes

The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) will begin its early-science operations during 2016. Drift-scan pulsar surveys will be carried out during this period using an ultra-wide-band receiver system (covering ? 270 to 1620 MHz). We describe a method for accounting for the changes in the telescope beam shape and the pulsar parameters when searching for pulsars over such a wide bandwidth. We applied this method to simulated data sets of pulsars in globular clusters that are visible to FAST and found that a representative observation would have a sensitivity of ? 40 ?Jy. Our results showed that a single drift-scan (lasting less than a minute) is likely to find at least one pulsar for observations of four globular clusters. Repeated observations will increase the likely number of detections. We found that pulsars in ?16 clusters are likely to be found if the data from 100 drift-scan observations of each cluster are incoherently combined.

submitted time 2016-05-23 Hits7393Downloads1113 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01812 [pdf]

On The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture for CM Elliptic Curves over Q

Subjects: Mathematics >> Algebra and Number Theory

For CM elliptic curve over rational field with analytic rank one, for any potential good ordinary prime p, not dividing the number of roots of unity in the complex multiplication field, we show the p-part of its Shafarevich-Tate group has order predicted by the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

submitted time 2016-05-19 Hits3926Downloads1549 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01808 [pdf]

Significant Expansion of Fluorescent Protein Sensing Ability through the Genetic Incorporation of Superior Photo-Induced Electron-Transfer Quenchers

Liu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Li; Li, Jiasong; Wang, Li; Zhou, Qing; Lv, Xiaoxuan; Gong, Weimin; Wang, Jiangyun; Lu, Yi; Lu, Yi; Yu, Yang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is ubiquitous for photosynthesis and fluorescent sensor design. However, genetically coded PET sensors are underdeveloped, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically install PET probes on proteins. Here we describe a family of acid and Mn(III) turn-on fluorescent protein (FP) sensors, named iLovU, based on PET and the genetic incorporation of superior PET quenchers in the fluorescent flavoprotein iLov. Using the iLovU PET sensors, we monitored the cytoplasmic acidification process, and achieved Mn(III) fluorescence sensing for the first time. The iLovU sensors should be applicable for studying pH changes in living cells, monitoring biogentic Mn(III) in the environment, and screening for efficient manganese peroxidase, which is highly desirable for lignin degradation and biomass conversion. Our work establishes a platform for many more protein PET sensors, facilitates the de novo design of metalloenzymes harboring redox active residues, and expands our ability to probe protein conformational dynamics.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits3241Downloads1443 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01807 [pdf]

7T Transmit/Receive Arrays Using ICE Decoupling for Human Head MR Imaging

Yan, Xinqiang; Feng, Baotong; Ma, ChuangXin; Wei, Long; Yan, Xinqiang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Rong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

In designing large-sized volume type phased array coils for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields, e.g., 7T, minimizing electromagnetic coupling among array elements is technically challenging. A new decoupling method based on induced current compensation or elimination (ICE) for a microstrip line planar array has recently been proposed. In this study, an eight-channel transmit/receive volume array with ICE-decoupled loop elements was built and investigated to demonstrate its feasibility and robustness for human head imaging at 7T. Isolation between adjacent loop elements was better than - 25 dB with a human head load. The worst-case of the isolation between all of the elements was about - 17.5 dB. All of the MRI experiments were performed on a 7T whole-body human MR scanner. Images of the phantom and human head were acquired and g-factor maps were measured and calculated to evaluate the performance of the coil array. Compared with the conventional capacitively decoupled array, the ICE-decoupled array demonstrated improved parallel imaging ability and had a higher SNR. The experimental results indicate that the transceiver array design with ICE decoupling technique might be a promising solution to designing high performance transmit/receive coil arrays for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits3140Downloads1304 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01806 [pdf]

Polymer-Ag Nanocomposites with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Infection

Mei, Lin; Lu, Zhentan; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing; Jia, Yanxia; Jia, Yanxia
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanopartides, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits3110Downloads1313 Comment 0

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