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1. chinaXiv:202101.00056 [pdf]

Freeze–thaw effects on erosion process in loess slope under simulated rainfall

SU Yuanyi; LI Peng; REN Zongping; XIAO Lie; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Seasonal freeze–thaw processes have led to severe soil erosion in the middle and high latitudes. The area affected by freeze–thaw erosion in China exceeds 13% of the national territory. So understanding the effect of freeze–thaw on erosion process is of great significance for soil and water conservation as well as for ecological engineering. In this study, we designed simulated rainfall experiments to investigate soil erosion processes under two soil conditions, unfrozen slope (UFS) and frozen slope (FS), and three rainfall intensities of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mm/min. The results showed that the initial runoff time of FS occurred much earlier than that of the UFS. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff of FS is 1.17–1.26 times that of UFS; and the sediment yield of FS is 6.48–10.49 times that of UFS. With increasing rainfall time, rills were produced on the slope. After the appearance of the rills, the sediment yield on the FS accounts for 74%–86% of the total sediment yield. Rill erosion was the main reason for the increase in soil erosion rate on FS, and the reduction in water percolation resulting from frozen layers was one of the important factors leading to the advancement of rills on slope. A linear relationship existed between the cumulative runoff and the sediment yield of UFS and FS (R2>0.97, P<0.01). The average mean weight diameter (MWD) on the slope erosion particles was as follows: UFS0.9 (73.84 μm)>FS0.6 (72.30 μm)>UFS1.2 (72.23 μm)>substrate (71.23 μm)>FS1.2 (71.06 μm)>FS0.9 (70.72 μm). During the early stage of the rainfall, the MWD of the FS was relatively large. However, during the middle to late rainfall, the particle composition gradually approached that of the soil substrate. Under different rainfall intensities, the mean soil erodibility (MK) of the FS was 7.22 times that of the UFS. The ratio of the mean regression coefficient C2 (MC2) between FS and UFS was roughly correspondent with MK. Therefore, the parameter C2 can be used to evaluate soil erodibility after the appearance of the rills. This article explored the influence mechanism of freeze–thaw effects on loess soil erosion and provided a theoretical basis for further studies on soil erosion in the loess hilly regions.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits188Downloads104 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201811.00103 [pdf]

Changes in soil microbial community response to precipitation events in a semi-arid steppe of the Xilin River Basin, China

ZHANG Hui; LIU Wenjun; KANG Xiaoming; CUI Xiaoyong; WANG Yanfen; ZHAO Haitao; QIAN Xiaoqing; HAO Yanbin
Subjects: Agriculture, Forestry,Livestock & Aquatic Products Science >> Soil Science

In the context of climate change, precipitation is predicted to become more intense at the global scale. Such change may alter soil microbial communities and the microbially mediated carbon and nitrogen dynamics. In this study, we experimentally repackaged precipitation patterns during the growing season (from June to September) of 2012 in a semi-arid temperate steppe of the Xilin River Basin in Inner Mongolia of China, based on the 60-year growing season precipitation data. Specifically, we manipulated a total amount of 240 mm precipitation to experimental plots by taking the following treatments: (1) P6 (6 extreme precipitation events, near the 1st percentile); (2) P10 (10 extreme precipitation events, near the 5th percentile); (3) P16 (16 moderate precipitation events, near the 50th percentile); and (4) P24 (24 events, 60-year average precipitation, near the 50th percentile). At the end of the growing season, we analyzed soil microbial community structure and biomass, bacterial abundance, fungal abundance and bacterial composition, by using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods. The extreme precipitation events did not change soil microbial community structure (represented by the ratio of PLFA concentration in fungi to PLFA concentration in bacteria, and the ratio of PLFA concentration in gram-positive bacterial biomass to PLFA concentration in gram-negative bacterial biomass). However, the extreme precipitation events significantly increased soil microbial activity (represented by soil microbial biomass nitrogen and soil bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers). Soil fungal community showed no significant response to precipitation events. According to the redundancy analysis, both soil microbial biomass nitrogen and soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) were found to be significant in shaping soil microbial community. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in soil bacterial composition, and responded differently to the extreme precipitation events. Based on the results, we concluded that the extreme precipitation events altered the overall soil microbial activity, but did not impact how the processes would occur, since soil microbial community structure remained unchanged.

submitted time 2018-11-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits12139Downloads1472 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201712.00398 [pdf]

Influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes based on rainfall simulation experiments

ZHANG Xiang; LI Zhanbin; LI Peng; TANG Shanshan; WANG Tian; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

Aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion regions are subject to intense soil erosion and are of particular concern in loess areas of northwestern China. Understanding the composition, distribution, and transport processes of eroded sediments in these regions is of considerable scientific significance for controlling soil erosion. In this study, based on laboratory rainfall simulation experiments, we analyzed rainfall-induced erosion processes on sand-covered loess slopes (SS) with different sand cover patterns (including length and thickness) and uncovered loess slopes (LS) to investigate the influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes in case regions of aeolian-fluvial erosion. The grain-size curves of eroded sediments were fitted using the Weibull function. Compositions of eroded sediments under different sand cover patterns and rainfall intensities were analyzed to explore sediment transport modes of SS. The influences of sand cover amount and pattern on erosion processes of loess slopes were also discussed. The results show that sand cover on loess slopes influences the proportion of loess erosion and that the compositions of eroded sediments vary between SS and LS. Sand cover on loess slopes transforms silt erosion into sand erosion by reducing splash erosion and changing the rainfall-induced erosion processes. The percentage of eroded sand from SS in the early stage of runoff and sediment generation is always higher than that in the late stage. Sand cover on loess slopes aggravates loess erosion, not only by adding sand as additional eroded sediments but also by increasing the amount of eroded loess, compared with the loess slopes without sand cover. The influence of sand cover pattern on runoff yield and the amount of eroded sediments is larger than that of sand cover amount. Furthermore, given the same sand cover pattern, a thicker sand cover could increase sand erosion while a thinner sand cover could aggravate loess erosion. This difference explains the existence of intense erosion on slopes that are thinly covered with sand in regions where aeolian erosion and fluvial erosion interact.

submitted time 2017-12-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2681Downloads930 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201608.00218 [pdf]

Characterization study of a broad-energy germanium detector at CJPL

ZENG Zhi; MI Yuhao; ZENG Ming; MA Hao; YUE Qian; CHENG Jianping; LI Junli; QIU Rui; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The ability of background discrimination using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in broad-energy germanium (BEGe) detectors makes them as competitive candidates for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{\nu}\b{eta}\b{eta}) experiments. The measurements of key parameters for detector modeling in a commercial p-type BEGe detector are presented in this paper. Point-like sources were used to investigate the energy resolution and linearity of the detector. A cylindrical volume source was used for the efficiency calibration. With an assembled device for source positioning, a collimated 133Ba point-like source was used to scan the detector and investigate the active volume. A point-like source of 241Am was used to measure the dead layer thicknesses, which are approximately 0.17 mm on the front and 1.18 mm on the side. The described characterization method will play an important role in the 0{\nu}\b{eta}\b{eta} experiments with BEGe detectors at China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) in the future.

submitted time 2016-08-31 Hits900Downloads515 Comment 0

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