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1. chinaXiv:201909.00001 [pdf]


段锦云; 施蓓; 王啸天
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology


submitted time 2019-08-30 Hits4626Downloads1264 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201909.00015 [pdf]

Analytical expressions of copositivity for 4th order symmetric tensors and applications

宋义生; 祁力群
Subjects: Mathematics >> Control and Optimization.

In particle physics, scalar potentials have to be bounded from below in order for the physics to make sense. The precise expressions of checking lower bound of scalar potentials are essential, which is an analytical expression of checking copositivity and positive definiteness of tensors given by such scalar potentials. Because the tensors given by general scalar potential are 4th order and symmetric, our work mainly focuses on finding precise expressions to test copositivity and positive definiteness of 4th order tensors in this paper. First of all, an analytically sufficient and necessary condition of positive definiteness is provided for 4th order 2 dimensional symmetric tensors. For 4th order 3 dimensional symmetric tensors, we give two analytically sufficient conditions of (strictly) cpositivity by using proof technique of reducing orders or dimensions of such a tensor. Furthermore, an analytically sufficient and necessary condition of copositivity is showed for 4th order 2 dimensional symmetric tensors. We also give several distinctly analytically sufficient conditions of (strict) copositivity for 4th order 2 dimensional symmetric tensors. Finally, we apply these results to check lower bound of scalar potentials, and to present analytical vacuum stability conditions for potentials of two real scalar fields and the Higgs boson.

submitted time 2019-08-30 Hits15742Downloads938 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201909.00005 [pdf]

A drought resistance index to select drought resistant plant species based on leaf water potential measurements

SayedJamaleddin KHAJEDDIN
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The water deficit in arid and semi-arid regions is the primary limiting factor for the development of urban greenery and forestation. In addition, planting the species that consume low levels of water is useful in arid and semi-arid regions that have poor water management measures. Leaf water potential (Ψ) is a physiological parameter that can be used to identify drought resistance in various species. Indeed, Ψ is one of the most important properties of a plant that can be measured using a pressure chamber. Drought avoiding or drought resistant species have a lower Ψ than plants that use normal or high levels of water. To determine drought resistance of species that are suitable for afforestation in arid urban regions, we evaluated twenty woody species in the Isfahan City, central Iran. The experimental design was random split-split plots with five replications. The species were planted outdoor in plastic pots and then subjected to treatments that consisted of two soil types and five drip irrigation regimes. To evaluate the resistance of each species to drought, we used the Ψ and the number of survived plants to obtain the drought resistance index (DRI). Then, cluster analysis, dendrogram, and similarity index were used to group the species using DRI. Result indicates that the evaluated species were classified into five groups: (1) high water consuming species (DRI>–60 MPa); (2) above normal water consuming species (–60 MPa≥DRI>–90 MPa); (3) normal water consuming species (–90 MPa≥DRI>–120 MPa); (4) semi-drought resistant species (–120 MPa≥DRI>–150 MPa); and (5) drought resistant species (DRI≤–150 MPa). According to the DRI, Salix babylonica L., Populus alba L., and P. nigra L. are high water consuming species, Platanus orientalis L. and Albizia julibrissin Benth are normal water consuming species, and Quercus infectoria Oliv. and Olea europaea L. can be considered as drought resistant species.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9619Downloads650 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201909.00006 [pdf]

Allometric biomass equations of Larix sibirica in the Altay Mountains, Northwest China

LI Yuanyuan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Boreal forests are important carbon sinks and have tremendous potential to mitigate climate change. Aboveground biomass of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) stands in the Altay Mountains, Northwest China was studied and allometric equations that are related to the biomass of aboveground components using diameter at breast height (DBH) or both DBH and height (H) as independent variables for L. sibirica trees were derived in this paper. A linear simultaneous equation system by using either DBH or both DBH and H (DBH&H) indices, was used to ensure additivity of the biomass of individual tree components, and was fitted for L. sibirica. Model performance was validated using the jackknifing test. Results indicate that the goodness-of-fit for the regressions was lowest for the needles (R2 ranging from 0.696 to 0.756), and highest for the stem wood (R2 ranging from 0.984 to 0.997) and the aggregated biomass components (R2 ranging from 0.994 to 0.995). The coefficient of determination for each component was only marginally improved in terms of model fit and performance in the biomass equations that used DBH&H as the independent variables compared to that used DBH as the independent variable, and needles yielded an even worse fit. Stem biomass accounted for the largest proportion (87%) of the aboveground biomass. Based on the additive equations that used DBH as the single predicitor in this study, the mean aboveground carbon stock density and the carbon storage values of L. sibirica forests were 74.07 Mg C/hm2 and 30.69 Tg C, respectively, in the Altay Mountains. Empirical comparisons of published equations for the same species growing in the Altay Mountains of Mongolia were also presented. The mean aboveground carbon stock density estimated for L. sibirica forests was higher in the Chinese Altay Mountains than in the Mongolian Altay Mountains (66.00 Mg C/hm2).

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6957Downloads627 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201909.00007 [pdf]

Community phylogenetic structure of grasslands and its relationship with environmental factors on the Mongolian Plateau

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The community assembly rules and species coexistence have always been interested by ecologists. The community phylogenetic structure is the consequence of the interaction process between the organisms and the abiotic environment and has been used to explain the relative impact of abiotic and biotic factors on species co-existence. In recent years, grassland degradation and biodiversity loss have become increasingly severe on the Mongolian Plateau, while the drivers for these changes are not clearly explored, especially whether climate change is a main factor is debated in academia. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic structure of grassland communities along five transects of climate aridity on the Mongolian Plateau, and analyzed their relations with environmental factors, with the aims to understand the formation mechanism of the grassland communities and the role of climatic factors. We surveyed grassland communities at 81 sites along the five transects, and calculated their net relatedness index (NRI) at two different quadrat scales (small scale of 1 m2 and large scale of 5 m2) to characterize the community phylogenetic structure and analyze its relationship with the key 11 environmental factors. We also calculated the generalized UniFrac distance (GUniFrac) among the grassland communities to quantify the influence of spatial distance and environmental distance on the phylogenetic β diversity. The results indicated that plant community survey using the large scale quadrat contained sufficient species to represent community compositions. The community phylogenetic structure of grasslands was significantly overdispersed at both the small and large scales, and the degree of overdispersion was greater at the large scale than at the small scale, suggesting that competitive exclusion instead of habitat filtering played a major role in determination of community composition. Altitude was the main factor affecting the community phylogenetic structure, whereas climatic factors, such as precipitation and temperature, had limited influence. The principal component analysis of the 11 environmental factors revealed that 94.04% of their variation was accounted by the first four principal components. Moreover only 14.29% and 23.26% of the variation in community phylogenetic structure were explained by the first four principal components at the small and large scales, respectively. Phylogenetic β diversity was slightly significantly correlated with both spatial distance and environmental distance, however, environmental distance had a less explanatory power than spatial distance, indicating a limited environmental effect on the community phylogenetic structure of grasslands on the Mongolian Plateau. In view of the limited effect of climatic factors on the community phylogenetic structure of grasslands, climate change may have a smaller impact on grassland degradation than previously thought.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits10848Downloads690 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201909.00008 [pdf]

Shrub modulates the stoichiometry of moss and soil in desert ecosystems, China

LI Yonggang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Desert mosses, which are important stabilizers in desert ecosystems, are distributed patchily under and between shrubs. Mosses differ from vascular plants in the ways they take up nutrients. Clarifying their distribution with ecological stoichiometry may be useful in explaining their mechanisms of living in different microhabitats. In this study, Syntrichia caninervis, the dominant moss species of moss crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert, China, was selected to examine the study of stoichiometric characteristics in three microhabitats (under living shrubs, under dead shrubs and in exposed ground). The stoichiometry and enzyme activity of rhizosphere soil were analyzed. The plant function in the above-ground and below-ground parts of S. caninervis is significantly different, so the stoichiometry of the above-ground and below-ground parts might also be different. Results showed that carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents in the below-ground parts of S. caninervis were significantly lower than those in the above-ground parts. The highest N and P contents of the two parts were found under living shrubs and the lowest under dead shrubs. The C contents of the two parts did not differ significantly among the three microhabitats. In contrast, the ratios of C:N and C:P in the below-ground parts were higher than those in the above-ground parts in all microhabitats, with significant differences in the microhabitats of exposed ground and under living shrubs. There was an increasing trend in soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), soil available phosphorous (SAP), and C:P and N:P ratios from exposed ground to under living shrubs and to under dead shrubs. No significant differences were found in soil total phosphorous (STP) and soil available nitrogen (SAN), or in ratios of C:N and SAN:SAP. Higher soil urease (SUE) and soil nitrate reductase (SNR) activities were found in soil under dead shrubs, while higher soil sucrase (STC) and soil β-glucosidase (SBG) activities were respectively found in exposed ground and under living shrubs. Soil alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity reached its lowest value under dead shrubs, and there was no significant difference between the microhabitats of exposed ground and under living shrubs. Results indicated that the photosynthesis-related C of S. caninervis remained stable under the three microhabitats while N and P were mediated by the microhabitats. The growth strategy of S. caninervis varied in different microhabitats because of the different energy cycles and nutrient balances. The changes of stoichiometry in soil were not mirrored in the moss. We conclude that microhabitat could change the growth strategy of moss and nutrients cycling of moss patches

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9476Downloads628 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201909.00009 [pdf]

Effects of different tillage and straw retention practices on soil aggregates and carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils of the northwestern China

WU Jun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil tillage and straw retention in dryland areas may affect the soil aggregates and the distribution of total organic carbon. The aims of this study were to establish how different tillage and straw retention practices affect the soil aggregates and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in the aggregate fractions based on a long-term (approximately 15 years) field experiment in the semi-arid western Loess Plateau, northwestern China. The experiment included four soil treatments, i.e., conventional tillage with straw removed (T), conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS), no tillage with straw removed (NT) and no tillage with straw retention (NTS), which were arranged in a complete randomized block design. The wet-sieving method was used to separate four size fractions of aggregates, namely, large macroaggregates (LA, >2000 μm), small macroaggregates (SA, 250–2000 μm), microaggregates (MA, 53–250 μm), and silt and clay (SC, <53 μm). Compared to the conventional tillage practices (including T and TS treatments), the percentages of the macroaggregate fractions (LA and SA) under the conservation tillage practices (including NT and NTS treatments) were increased by 41.2%–56.6%, with the NTS treatment having the greatest effect. For soil layers of 0–5, 5–10 and 10–30 cm, values of the mean weight diameter (MWD) under the TS and NTS treatments were 10.68%, 13.83% and 17.65%, respectively. They were 18.45%, 19.15% and 14.12% higher than those under the T treatment, respectively. The maximum contents of the aggregate-associated SOC and TN were detected in the SA fraction, with the greatest effect being observed for the NTS treatment. The SOC and TN contents were significantly higher under the NTS and TS treatments than under the T treatment. Also, the increases in SOC and TN levels were much higher in the straw-retention plots than in the straw-removed plots. The macroaggregates (including LA and SA fractions) were the major pools for SOC and TN, regardless of tillage practices, storing 3.25–6.81 g C/kg soil and 0.34–0.62 g N/kg soil. Based on the above results, we recommend the NTS treatment as the best option to boost soil aggregates and to reinforce carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils in the semi-arid western Loess Plateau of northwestern China.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9462Downloads671 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201909.00010 [pdf]

Determining the spatial distribution of soil properties using the environmental covariates and multivariate statistical analysis: a case study in semi-arid regions of Iran

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Natural soil-forming factors such as landforms, parent materials or biota lead to high variability in soil properties. However, there is not enough research quantifying which environmental factor(s) can be the most relevant to predicting soil properties at the catchment scale in semi-arid areas. Thus, this research aims to investigate the ability of multivariate statistical analyses to distinguish which soil properties follow a clear spatial pattern conditioned by specific environmental characteristics in a semi-arid region of Iran. To achieve this goal, we digitized parent materials and landforms by recent orthophotography. Also, we extracted ten topographical attributes and five remote sensing variables from a digital elevation model (DEM) and the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), respectively. These factors were contrasted for 334 soil samples (depth of 0–30 cm). Cluster analysis and soil maps reveal that Cluster 1 comprises of limestones, massive limestones and mixed deposits of conglomerates with low soil organic carbon (SOC) and clay contents, and Cluster 2 is composed of soils that originated from quaternary and early quaternary parent materials such as terraces, alluvial fans, lake deposits, and marls or conglomerates that register the highest SOC content and the lowest sand and silt contents. Further, it is confirmed that soils with the highest SOC and clay contents are located in wetlands, lagoons, alluvial fans and piedmonts, while soils with the lowest SOC and clay contents are located in dissected alluvial fans, eroded hills, rock outcrops and steep hills. The results of principal component analysis using the remote sensing data and topographical attributes identify five main components, which explain 73.3% of the total variability of soil properties. Environmental factors such as hillslope morphology and all of the remote sensing variables can largely explain SOC variability, but no significant correlation is found for soil texture and calcium carbonate equivalent contents. Therefore, we conclude that SOC can be considered as the best-predicted soil property in semi-arid regions.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9624Downloads660 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201909.00011 [pdf]

Climate change and its impacts on mountain glaciers during 1960–2017 in western China

LIU Yinge
Subjects: Geosciences >> Atmospheric Sciences

Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change. In this paper, we systematically analyzed and discussed the responses of glaciers to climate change during 1960–2017 in western China by the methods of least squares and correlation analysis. Results show that the maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, and precipitation significantly increased in western China at the rates of 0.32°C/10a, 0.48°C/10a, 0.39°C/10a, and 11.20 mm/10a, respectively. However, the wind speed, hours of sunshine, snowfall, and snowy days displayed decreasing trends at the rates of –0.53 m/(s?10a), 3.72 h/10a, –2.90 mm/10a, and –0.10 d/10a, respectively. The annual percentage of glacier area decreased by approximately 0.42%, and the average glacier area decreased by 2.76 km2/a. Meanwhile, glacial shrinkages were greater in the Altay Mountains, Tanggula Mountains, and Qilian Mountains than in the other mountainous regions. Glacier accumulation decreased while melt volume increased at a rate of 2.7×104 m3/a. The area of melt volume was 1.3 times that of the glacier accumulation area. The glacier mass balance (GMB) decreased substantially at a rate of –14.0 mm/a, whereas the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) showed an increasing trend at a rate of 0.5 mm/a. After 1997, the mass was smaller than –500.0 mm, indicating a huge loss in glaciers. Furthermore, relationships between ELA and GMB and various climatic factors were established. Temperature and precipitation demonstrated a significantly negative correlation, whereas wind speed and snowy days had significantly positive correlations with GMB. Snowy days also exhibited a remarkably negative correlation with ELA. The strong warming trend and less snowy days were thought to be the main factors leading to glacial melting, whereas the increase in precipitation, and reductions of sunshine hours and wind speed might slow glacial melting.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6324Downloads633 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201909.00012 [pdf]

Sand source and formation mechanism of riverine sand dunes: a case study in Xiangshui River, China

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Riverine sand dunes develop as a result of fluvial-aeolian interactions. The primarily barchan dune chains along the Xiangshui River (a branch of the Xar Moron River in the western part of the Horqin Sandy Land of China) form a typical riverine dune field. We collected a series of samples from the riverine sand dunes parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind and investigated the sand sources and formation mechanisms of these dunes by determining the grain size, heavy mineral content and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the samples. The sand of the near-river dunes was coarser than the sand of the dunes distant from the river, indicating that coarse sand of the valley mainly deposited on near-river dunes. The heavy mineral analysis suggested that wind-sand activity levels were intense on the upwind dunes, but relatively weak on the downwind dunes. This indicated that the sand sources for the near-river dunes were more abundant than those of the distant dunes. Our OSL analysis of samples suggested that the deposition rates on dunes near the river were greater than the deposition rates on dunes distant from the river. The development of dunes along the river indicated that the river played an important role in dune formation and development. In addition, airflow fluctuation and the formation of the waveform dunes had a type of feedback relationship. Grain size, heavy mineral and OSL analyses are widely used methods in wind-sand research. Sand dune grain size characteristics reflect the effects of airflow on the transport and separation of sand materials, as well as the physical characteristics of the sand sources. Heavy mineral characteristics are often used to investigate the relationships between sediments and sand sources. OSL indicates dune age, revealing formation of dunes. Therefore, it is useful to explore dune sand sources, as well as the mechanisms underlying dune formation, by determining grain size, heavy mineral content and OSL. This study investigated the sand sources of riverine dunes and provided new information about riverine dune formation and development.

submitted time 2019-08-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits9016Downloads619 Comment 0

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