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1. chinaXiv:201803.00001 [pdf]

Regional difference and dynamic mechanism of locality of the Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone based on geotagged photos from Panoramio

WANG, Fang; LI, Yixi; DONG, Ying; ZHU, Xiaohua
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Cross-regional locality research reflects the influences of natural environment and the human activities due to the abundant land types and the multiple landscape combinations in related regions. The Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone is a typical large-scale region but few studies were conducted. This research contributed to the understanding of cross-regional locality of the Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone from different scales, including national, sectional, and provincial administrative units by utilizing geotagged photos (GTPs) obtained from the Panoramio website. The major results were as follows: (1) the locality elements of the Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone included 52 free nodes classified into 8 types of scene attributes; (2) there were huge differences between locality elements of different regions, and there was a negative correlation between the similarity degree of elements of different provinces and their spatial distances; (3) the Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone could be divided into the northern, central and southern sections, whose localities had differences in element constitution, association structure and the strength of elements, system stability and the anti-interference capability; and (4) the evolution of the localities of the northern and central sections was mainly influenced by human activities, while the locality of southern section retained more natural features. On a theoretical level, this research aimed to establish the research methodology of locality from the perspective of open data on the web with strong operability and replicability. On a practical level, this research could enrich the structuring recognition of the locality of the Chinese farming-pastoral ecotone and the comprehension of its dynamic mechanism. The results provide a reference for locality differentiation protection and the development of a cross-regional scale.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1413Downloads775 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201803.00003 [pdf]

Planting density affected biomass and grain yield of maize for seed production in an arid region of Northwest China

JIANG, Xuelian; TONG, Ling; KANG, Shaozhong; LI, Fusheng; LI, Donghao; QIN, Yonghui; SHI, Rongchao; LI, Jianbing
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Field experiments were conducted from 2012 to 2015 in an arid region of Northwest China to investigate the effects of planting density on plant growth, yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize for seed production. Five planting densities of 6.75, 8.25, 9.75, 11.25 and 12.75 plants/m2 were conducted in 2012, and a planting density of 14.25 plants/m2 was added from 2013 to 2015. Through comparison with the AquaCrop yield model, a modified model was developed to estimate the biomass accumulation and yield under different planting densities using adjustment coefficient for normalized biomass water productivity and harvest index. It was found that the modified yield model had a better performance and could generate results with higher determination coefficient and lower error. The results indicated that higher planting density increased the leaf area index and biomass accumulation, but decreased the biomass accumulation per plant. The total yield increased rapidly as planting density increased to 11.25 plants/m2, but only a slight increase was observed when the density was greater than 11.25 plants/m2. The WUE also reached the maximum when planting density was 11.25 plants/m2, which was the recommended planting density of maize for seed production in Northwest China.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1464Downloads750 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201803.00004 [pdf]

Variations of the thermal growing season during the period 1961–2015 in northern China

CUI, Linli; SHI, Jun; MA, Yue; LIU, Xiaochen
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Researching into changes in thermal growing season has been one of the most important scientific issues in studies of the impact of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies investigated the differences under various definitions of thermal growing season and compared the trends of thermal growing season in different parts of China. Based on the daily mean air temperatures collected from 877 meteorological stations over northern China from 1961 to 2015, we investigated the variations of the thermal growing season parameters including the onset, ending and duration of the growing season using the methods of differential analysis, trend analysis, comparative analysis, and Kriging interpolation technique. Results indicate that the differences of the maximum values of those indices for the thermal growing season were significant, while they were insignificant for the mean values. For indices with the same length of the spells exceeding 5°C, frost criterion had a significant effect on the differences of the maximum values. The differences of the mean values between frost and non-frost indices were also slight, even smaller than those from the different lengths of the spells. Temporally, the starting date of the thermal growing season advanced by 10.0–11.0 days, while the ending dates delayed by 5.0–6.0 days during the period 1961–2015. Consequently, the duration of the thermal growing season was prolonged 15.0–16.0 days. Spatially, the advanced onset of the thermal growing season occurred in the southwestern, eastern, and northeastern parts of northern China, whereas the delayed ending of the thermal growing season appeared in the western part, and the length of the thermal growing season was prolonged significantly in the vast majority of northern China. The trend values of the thermal growing season were affected by altitude. The magnitude of the earlier onset of the thermal growing season decreased, and that of the later ending increased rapidly as the altitude increased, causing the magnitude of the prolonged growing season increased correspondingly. Comparing the applicability of selected indices and considering the impacts of frost on the definitions are important and necessary for determining the timing and length of the thermal growing season in northern China.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1246Downloads668 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201803.00005 [pdf]

Efficiency of soil and water conservation practices in different agro-ecological environments in the Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia

SULTAN, Dagnenet; TSUNEKAWA, Atsushi ; HAREGEWEYN, Nigussie ; ADGO, Enyew ; TSUBO, Mitsuru ; MESHESHA, Derege T ; MASUNAGA, Tsugiyuki ; AKLOG, Dagnachew ; FENTA, Ayele A ; EBABU, Kindiye
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

In developing countries such as Ethiopia, research to develop and promote soil and water conservation practices rarely addressed regional diversity. Using a water-balance approach in this study, we used runoff plots from three sites, each representing a different agro-ecological environment, e.g., high, mid and low in both elevation and rainfall, in the Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia to examine the runoff response and runoff conservation efficiency of a range of different soil and water conservation measures and their impacts on soil moisture. The plots at each site represented common land use types (cultivated vs. non-agricultural land use types) and slopes (gentle and steep). Seasonal runoff from control plots in the highlands ranged 214–560 versus 253–475 mm at midlands and 119–200 mm at lowlands. The three soil and water conservation techniques applied in cultivated land increased runoff conservation efficiency by 32% to 51%, depending on the site. At the moist subtropical site in a highland region, soil and water conservation increased soil moisture enough to potentially cause waterlogging, which was absent at the low-rainfall sites. Soil bunds combined with Vetiveria zizanioides grass in cultivated land and short trenches in grassland conserved the most runoff (51% and 55%, respectively). Runoff responses showed high spatial variation within and between land use types, causing high variation in soil and water conservation efficiency. Our results highlight the need to understand the role of the agro-ecological environment in the success of soil and water conservation measures to control runoff and hydrological dynamics. This understanding will support policy development to promote the adoption of suitable techniques that can be tested at other locations with similar soil, climatic, and topographic conditions.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1356Downloads725 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201803.00006 [pdf]

Forest recovery after clear-cutting in Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) plantations of North China

DONG, Boqian; ZHAO, Kuangji; WANG, Zhibin; JIA, Zhongkui; XIA, Xinli
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

In Hebei Province of North China, forest was recovered with natural recruitment in plantations with large area of clear-cutting Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis). This study was aimed to demonstrate the dynamic characteristics of recruits during the natural recruitment. Both plot survey and the spatial point-pattern analysis were performed. Five developmental stages of natural recruitment were selected and studied, including 1 year before and 2, 5, 8, and 11 years after clear-cutting. Different slope aspects were also included. Natural recruitment was always dominated by Chinese pine with a proportion of higher than 90%. For plots of 1 year before clear-cutting on east- and north-facing slopes, recruit densities were 7886 and 5036 stems/hm2, the average heights were 0.78 (±0.85) and 1.06 (±1.15) m, and the average diameters at breast height (DBH) were 3.21 (±1.38) and 2.91 (±1.38) cm, respectively. After clear-cutting, recruit density was initially increased, then it was gradually declined with time; however, the variation of average DBH was contrary to that of recruit density. Both of them were no longer varied between 8 and 11 years after clear-cutting. The average height of recruits continued to increase after clear-cutting. For the plots of 11 years after clear-cutting on east- and north-facing slopes, average heights of recruits reached 2.00 (±1.14) and 2.24 (±1.20) m, respectively. The statuses of recruits on north-facing slopes were better than those on east-facing slopes after clear-cutting. Meanwhile, recruits on east-facing slopes were always aggregated at small scales, while spatial pattern of recruits varied with time on north-facing slopes. Moreover, forest was recovered more quickly by natural recruitment than by artificial afforestation after clear-cutting. The structural diversity was higher in naturally regenerated forests than in plantations of the same age. Our results demonstrated that clear-cutting of Chinese pine plantations recovered by natural recruitment has the potential to be an effective approach for establishing multifunctional forest.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1259Downloads649 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201803.00010 [pdf]

Model based decision support system for land use changes and socio-economic assessments

YU, Yang; CHEN, Xi; HUTTNER, Philipp; HINNENTHAL, Marie; BRIEDEN, Andreas; SUN, Lingxiao; DSE, ISMarkus
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Hydrological models are often linked with other models in cognate sciences to understand the interactions among climate, earth, water, ecosystem, and human society. This paper presents the development and implementation of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use management. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model, water availability in semi-arid environments. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were taken as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. The DSS integrates the hydrological data, geographic data, social and economic statistical data, and establishes the relationships with equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming is realized in C++. The DSS has four remarkable features: (1) editable land use maps to assist decision-making; (2) conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources; (3) interactions among water, earth, ecosystem, and humans; and (4) links with hydrological models. The overall goal of the DSS is to combine the outputs of scientific models, knowledge of experts, and perspectives of stakeholders, into a computer-based system, which allows sustainability impact assessment within regional planning; and to understand ecosystem services and integrate them into land and water management.

submitted time 2018-02-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1882Downloads920 Comment 0

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