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1. chinaXiv:202003.00008 [pdf]

Germline Polymorphisms and Length of Survival of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Exome-Wide Association Study in Multiple Cohorts

Yun-Miao Guo; Jie-Rong Chen; Yan-Chun Feng; Chua, Melvin L. K. ; Zeng, Yanni ; Edwin Pun Hui; Allen K. C. Chan; Lin-Quan Tang; Lin Wang; Qian Cui; Hui-Qiong Han; Chun-Ling Luo; Guo-Wang Lin; Yan Liang; Yang Liu; Zhong-Lian He; Yu-Xiang Liu; Pan-Pan Wei; Chu-Jun Liu; Wan Peng
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Clinical Medicine

Germline polymorphisms have been linked with differential survival outcomes in cancers but have not been well studied in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, two-phase association study is conducted to discover germline polymorphisms that are associated with the prognosis of NPC. The discovery phase includes two consecutive hospital cohorts of patients with NPC from Southern China. Exome-wide genotypes at 246,173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are determined, followed by survival analysis for each SNP under Cox proportional hazards regression model. Candidate SNP is replicated in another two independent cohorts from Southern China and Singapore. Meta-analysis of all samples (n = 5,553) confirm that the presence of rs1131636-T, located in the 3′-UTR of RPA1, confers an inferior overall survival (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.20-1.47, P = 6.31 × 10-8). Bioinformatics and biological assays show that rs1131636 has regulatory effects on upstream RPA1. Functional studies further demonstrate that RPA1 promoted the growth, invasion, migration, and radioresistance of NPC cells. Additionally, miR-1253 has been identified as a suppressor for RPA1 expression, likely through regulation of its binding affinity to rs1131636 locus. Collectively, these findings provide a promising biomarker aiding in stratifying patients with poor survival, as well as a potential drug target for NPC.

submitted time 2020-03-06 Hits27927Downloads1779 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.00533 [pdf]

Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050: footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption

Geoffrey P. Hammond; Bo Li
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

Environmental or ‘ecological’ footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, ‘carbon footprints’ are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis). The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the world production of liquid biofuels have been computed for the period 2010–2050. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from the 2011 International Energy Agency (IEA) ‘technology roadmap’ for transport biofuels. This suggests that, although first generation biofuels will dominate the market up to 2020, advanced or second generation biofuels might constitute some 75% of biofuel production by 2050. The overall environmental footprint was estimated to be 0.29 billion (bn) gha in 2010 and is likely to grow to around 2.57 bn gha by 2050. It was then disaggregated into various components: bioproductive land, built land, carbon emissions, embodied energy, materials and waste, transport, and water consumption. This component-based approach has enabled the examination of the Manufactured and Natural Capital elements of the ‘four capitals’ model of sustainability quite broadly, along with specific issues (such as the linkages associated with the so-called energy–land–water nexus). Bioproductive land use was found to exhibit the largest footprint component (a 48% share in 2050), followed by the carbon footprint (23%), embodied energy (16%), and then the water footprint (9%). Footprint components related to built land, transport and waste arisings were all found to account for an insignificant proportion to the overall environmental footprint, together amounting to only about 2%

submitted time 2016-05-04 Hits2371Downloads462 Comment 0

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