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1. chinaXiv:202104.00088 [pdf]

国际学术期刊视角下的传媒领域研究现状与趋势:数字驱动下的知识结构重塑

陈虹枢; 金茜茜; 黄晓兰
Subjects: Library Science,Information Science >> Philology

面对世界范围内各种思想文化交流、交融、交锋的新形势,深入挖掘国际传媒研究的热点与趋势,对促进我国传媒领域的学术发展与完善我国哲学社会科学的学科体系具有重要意义。本文以Web of Science数据库中2015年至2019年传媒类期刊文献数据为基础,结合文献计量与概率主题模型对文档内容和元数据进行联合建模,较为全面地挖掘了近五年来国际传媒领域研究主题的地理分布与知识结构,最终落脚于国内传媒领域研究的热点主题分析。研究结果表明,数字技术推动新媒体蓬勃发展,不断刺激传媒领域的产业升级与文化重塑。我国部分主题在理论研究、产学交流、学科融合等方面仍存在探索与提升的空间,需要在共同重视理论研究与应用研究、基础学科与新兴学科的基础上开展符合国内语境、具有国际视野的传媒研究,为完善我国哲学社会科学的学科体系添砖加瓦。

submitted time 2021-04-23 Hits24Downloads11 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202104.00089 [pdf]

Monthly and seasonal streamflow forecasting of large dryland catchments in Brazil

COSTA, Alexandre C; ESTACIO, Alvson B S; SOUZA FILHO, Francisco de A de; LIMA NETO, Iran E
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Streamflow forecasting in drylands is challenging. Data is scarce, catchments are highly human-modified and streamflow exhibits strong nonlinear responses to rainfall. The goal of this study was to evaluate the monthly and seasonal streamflow forecasting in two large catchments in the Jaguaribe River Basin in the Brazilian semi-arid area. We adopted four different lead times: one month ahead for monthly scale and two, three and four months ahead for seasonal scale. The gaps of the historic streamflow series were filled up by using rainfall-runoff modelling. Then, time series model techniques were applied, i.e., the locally constant, the locally averaged, the k-nearest-neighbours algorithm (k-NN) and the autoregressive model (AR). The criterion of reliability of the validation results is that the forecast is more skillful than streamflow climatology. Our approach outperformed the streamflow climatology for all monthly streamflows. On average, the former was 25% better than the latter. The seasonal streamflow forecasting (SSF) was also reliable (on average, 20% better than the climatology), failing slightly only for the high flow season of one catchment (6% worse than the climatology). Considering an uncertainty envelope (probabilistic forecasting), which was considerably narrower than the data standard deviation, the streamflow forecasting performance increased by about 50% at both scales. The forecast errors were mainly driven by the streamflow intra-seasonality at monthly scale, while they were by the forecast lead time at seasonal scale. The best-fit and worst-fit time series model were the k-NN approach and the AR model, respectively. The rainfall-runoff modelling outputs played an important role in improving streamflow forecasting for one streamgauge that showed 35% of data gaps. The developed data-driven approach is mathematical and computationally very simple, demands few resources to accomplish its operational implementation and is applicable to other dryland watersheds. Our findings may be part of drought forecasting systems and potentially help allocating water months in advance. Moreover, the developed strategy can serve as a baseline for more complex streamflow forecast systems.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits16Downloads12 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202104.00090 [pdf]

Plant community dynamics in arid lands: the role of desert ants

SHARAFATMANDRAD, Mohsen ; KHOSRAVI MASHIZI, Azam
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) play an important role in seed bank, seedling establishment and plant composition of arid ecosystems. Thus, knowing plant-ant interaction provides useful information for managers to design restoration and conservation plans. In this study, the roles of desert harvester ants (Messor intermedius and Messor melancholicus) and scavenger ants (Cataglyphis nodus and Lepisiota semenovi) on plant communities were investigated in arid ecosystems of southeastern Iran. Two vegetation types were distinguished in the study area and the nest density of ant species was determined. Furthermore, plant composition and soil seed bank were estimated at different distances from the ant nests. Results showed that the density of M. intermedius and M. melancholicus nests was higher in dwarf shrub-shrub vegetation type and the density of C. nodus and L. semenovi nests was higher in dwarf shrub vegetation type. The harvester and scavenger ants had enhanced the seed bank to 55% and 70%, respectively. Therefore, the role of scavenger ants on the plant communities' seed bank was greater than that of harvester ants. Although the scavenger ants were more influential on the annuals and the invasive plant species, the radius impact of the harvester ants on the perennials was greater, i.e., a positive interaction existed between the perennial plants and the harvester ants. C. nodus and L. semenovi played an important role in enhancing the ecosystem's potential for restoration through establishment of pioneer species in early stage of succession. The activity of M. intermedius is crucial for the development and maintenance of climax plant communities in arid ecosystems through assisting the plant species' establishment in late stage of succession. It is essential to preserve the diversity of these key ant species for the maintenance and sustainability of shrubs in arid ecosystems.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits10Downloads8 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00091 [pdf]

Optimization designs of artificial facilities in deserts based on computational simulation

DUN,Hongchao; HUANG,Ning; ZHANG,Jie
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Sediment transport of sand particles by wind is one of the main processes leading to desertification in arid regions, which severely impairs the ability of mankind to produce and live by drifting sand into settlements. Optimization designs of artificial facilities have lately attracted extensive interest for human settlement systems in deserts because of their acceptable protection effect, convenience of implementation, and low material cost. However, the complexity of a settlement system poses challenges concerning finding suitable materials, artificial facilities, and optimization designs for sand deposition protection. In an effort to overcome these challenges, we propose a settlement system built with brick, solar panel, and building arrays to meet the basic needs of human settlements in arid regions while preventing wind-sand disasters. The wind flow and movement characteristics of sand particles in the brick, panel, and building arrays were calculated using computational fluid dynamics and discrete phase model. The performance of three types of arrays in wind-sand flow in terms of decreasing the wind velocity and sand-particle invasion distance was evaluated. The results show that the wind velocity near the surface and the sand invasion distance were significantly decreased in the space between the brick arrays through properly selected vertical size and interspaces, indicating that the brick arrays have an impressive sand fixing and blocking performance; their effective protection distance was 3–4 m. The building arrays increased the near-surface wind velocity among buildings, resulting in less deposition of sand particles. The solar panel arrays were similar to the building arrays in most cases, but the deposition of sand particles on solar panels exerted a negative effect on energy utilization efficiency. Therefore, taking the optimal configuration of the settlement system into consideration, this study concludes that (1) brick arrays, which were proven effective in preventing sand particles, must be arranged in an upwind area; (2) solar panel arrays could accelerate the wind flow, so they are best to be arranged at the place where sand particles deposited easily; and (3) building arrays present a better arrangement in downwind areas.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits11Downloads8 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202104.00092 [pdf]

Impact of utility-scale solar photovoltaic array on the aeolian sediment transport in Hobq Desert, China

TANG, Guodong; MENG, Zhongju; GAO, Yong; DANG, Xiaohong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Deserts are ideal places to develop ground-mounted large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power station. Unfortunately, solar energy production, operation, and maintenance are affected by geomorphological changes caused by surface erosion that may occur after the construction of the solar PV power station. In order to avoid damage to a solar PV power station in sandy areas, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of wind-sand movement under the interference of solar PV array. The study was undertaken by measuring sediment transport of different wind directions above shifting dunes and three observation sites around the PV panels in the Hobq Desert, China. The results showed that the two-parameter exponential function provides better fit for the measured flux density profiles to the near-surface of solar PV array. However, the saltation height of sand particles changes with the intersection angle between the solar PV array and wind direction exceed 45°. The sediment transport rate above shifting dunes was always the greatest, while that around the test PV panels varied accordingly to the wind direction. Moreover, the aeolian sediment transport on the solar PV array was significantly affected by wind direction. The value of sand inhibition rate ranged from 35.46% to 88.51% at different wind directions. When the intersection angle exceeds 45°, the mean value of sediment transport rate above the solar PV array reduces to 82.58% compared with the shifting dunes. The results of our study expand our understanding of the formation and evolution of aeolian geomorphology at the solar PV footprint. This will facilitate the design and control engineering plans for solar PV array in sandy areas that operate according to the wind regime.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits12Downloads7 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202104.00093 [pdf]

Soil bacterial characteristics between surface and subsurface soils along a precipitation gradient in the Alxa Desert, China

TENG, Zeyu; XIAO, Shengchun; CHEN, Xiaohong; HAN, Chao
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Bacteria in desert soil have unique phylogeny and important ecological functions, and their responses to changes in precipitation need further attention. However, relevant studies have mainly focused on the surface soil, and studies on the responses of bacteria at different soil depths to variations in precipitation are rare. Thus, we used 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate the changes in soil bacterial distribution along a mean annual precipitation gradient (50–150 mm) in the Alxa Desert, China, and compared the variation characteristics in the surface soil layer (0–10 cm) and subsurface soil layer (10–20 cm). Results showed that soil bacterial communities significantly changed along the precipitation gradient in both soil layers. However, the subsurface soil layer could support bacterial communities with higher diversity and closer internal relationships but more internal competition than the surface soil layer. Additionally, compared with the surface soil layer, variations in diversity and co-occurrence patterns in the subsurface soil layer were more in line with the changes in the mean annual precipitation, while bacterial community structure was less variable in the subsurface soil layer. Compared with the mean annual precipitation, soil moisture had little influence on the structure and diversity of soil bacterial community but had a high correlation with intercommunity connectivity. Therefore, soil moisture might play a complex role in mediating environmental conditions and soil bacterial community characteristics. Due to the different responses of surface and subsurface soil bacteria to the changes in precipitation, it is necessary to distinguish different soil layers when predicting the trends in desert soil bacterial conditions associated with precipitation, and prediction of subsurface soil bacteria may be more accurate.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits12Downloads7 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202104.00094 [pdf]

Snowpack shifts cyanobacterial community in biological soil crusts

ZHANG, Bingchang; ZHANG, Yongqing; ZHOU, Xiaobing; LI, Xiangzhen; ZHANG, Yuanming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Winter snowpack is an important source of moisture that influences the development of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in desert ecosystems. Cyanobacteria are important photosynthetic organisms in BSCs. However, the responses of the cyanobacterial community in BSCs to snowpack, snow depth and melting snow are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the cyanobacterial community composition and diversity in BSCs under different snow treatments (doubled snow, ambient snow and removed snow) and three snow stages (stage 1, snowpack; stage 2, melting snow; and stage 3, melted snow) in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. In stages 1 and 2, Cyanobacteria were the dominant phylum in the bacterial community in the removed snow treatment, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in the bacterial communities in the ambient snow and doubled snow treatments. The relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased with increasing snow depth. The relative abundances of Cyanobacteria and other bacterial taxa were affected mainly by soil temperature and irradiance. In stages 2 and 3, the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria increased quickly due to the suitable soil moisture and irradiance conditions. Oscillatoriales, Chroococcales, Nostocales, Synechococcales and unclassified Cyanobacteria were detected in all the snow treatments, and the most dominant taxa were Oscillatoriales and Chroococcales. Various cyanobacterial taxa showed different responses to snowpack. Soil moisture and irradiance were the two critical factors shaping the cyanobacterial community structure. The snowpack depth and duration altered the soil surface irradiance, soil moisture and other soil properties, which consequently were selected for different cyanobacterial communities. Thus, local microenvironmental filtering (niche selection) caused by snow conditions may be a dominant process driving shifts in the cyanobacterial community in BSCs.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits11Downloads8 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202104.00095 [pdf]

Glacier mass balance in High Mountain Asia inferred from a GRACE release-6 gravity solution for the period 2002–2016

XIANG, Longwei; WANG, Hansheng; JIANG, Liming; SHEN, Qiang; STEFFEN, Holger ; LI, Zhen
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

We provide estimates of glacier mass changes in the High Mountain Asia (HMA) area from April 2002 to August 2016 by employing a new version of gravity solutions of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite mission. We found a total mass loss trend of the HMA glaciers at a rate of –22.17 (±1.96) Gt/a. The largest mass loss rates of –7.02 (±0.94) and –6.73 (±0.78) Gt/a are found for the glaciers in Nyainqentanglha Mountains and Eastern Himalayas, respectively. Although most glaciers in the HMA area show a mass loss, we find a small glacier mass gain of 1.19 (±0.55) and 0.77 (±0.37) Gt/a in Karakoram Mountains and West Kunlun Mountains, respectively. There is also a nearly zero mass balance in Pamirs. Our estimates of glacier mass change trends confirm previous results from the analysis of altimetry data of the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) DEM (Digital Elevation Model) satellites in most of the selected glacier areas. However, they largely differ to previous GRACE-based studies which we attribute to our different post-processing techniques of the newer GRACE data. In addition, we explicitly show regional mass change features for both the interannual glacier mass changes and the 14-a averaged seasonal glacier mass changes. These changes can be explained in parts by total net precipitation (net snowfall and net rainfall) and net snowfall, but mostly by total net radiation energy when compared to data from the ERA5-Land meteorological reanalysis. Moreover, nearly all the non-trend interannual mass changes and most seasonal mass changes can be explained by the total net radiation energy data. The mass loss trends could be partly related to a heat effect due to increased net rainfall in Tianshan Mountains, Qilian Mountains, Nyainqentanglha Mountains and Eastern Himalayas. Our new results for the glacier mass change in this study could help improve the understanding of glacier variation in the HMA area and contribute to the study of global change. They could also serve the utilization of water resources there and in neighboring areas.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits14Downloads7 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202104.00087 [pdf]

基于三元精神病态模型(TriPM model)的精神病态认知—情感加工框架

程诚; 郭培杨; 杨丽; 王梦雅
Subjects: Psychology >> Personality Psychology

精神病态作为暴力犯罪、累犯和青少年犯罪的重要预测变量,在临床心理学和司法领域受到了广泛重视。三元精神病态模型通过大胆、卑劣和去抑制三个维度对精神病态进行了操作化定义,反映了精神病态在神经生物学维度上存在的认知情感加工缺陷。其中,低威胁敏感性是精神病态大胆的主要病因学基础;而执行功能受损,尤其是注意调节缺陷则导致了精神病态的去抑制倾向;而与情绪识别存在联系的共情缺陷可能是卑劣的深层原因。未来研究中仍需关注精神病态的概念化问题,以及不同精神病态特质之间是否存在共同的潜在病因学基础,探索精神病态特质在生命早期阶段的体现从而进行及时有效的干预。

submitted time 2021-04-22 Hits54Downloads33 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202104.00086 [pdf]

新颖语义联结在顿悟促进记忆效果中的作用

陈石; 梁正; 李香兰; 陈嫣然; 赵庆柏; 于全磊; 李松清; 周治金; 刘丽中
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

采用成语谜题选择任务, 通过学习-测验范式探究顿悟促进记忆的认知神经机制。实验1采用行为实验, 验证成语谜题选择范式在探究顿悟促进记忆中的有效性, 结果显示, 相比于寻常联结条件, 新颖联结条件下被试在学习阶段具有更高的顿悟感得分, 在测试阶段具有更高的正确率, 范式的有效性得以验证。实验2采用fMRI技术探究顿悟促进记忆的关键脑区。结果显示, 相比于失败记忆新颖联结条件, 成功记忆新颖联结条件更强地激活了顿悟过程相关脑区, 包括海马、杏仁核、额中回、颞上回和颞中回。这说明在学习阶段的顿悟问题解决过程中, 对信息的深加工与积极情绪促进了随后的记忆; 对其进一步分析发现, 相比于寻常联结记忆, 新颖联结对记忆的促进效应主要与右侧海马激活有关, 它可能反映了在顿悟问题解决中新颖联结形成过程建立了情节记忆以及新颖且有价值的语义联结。研究结果表明新颖语义联结形成在顿悟促进记忆中发挥了重要作用。

submitted time 2021-04-21 Hits51Downloads22 Comment 0

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