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New ordinal relative fuzzy entropy

Yuanpeng HeSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

In real life, occurrences of a series of things are supposed to come in an order. Therefore, it is necessary to regard sequence as a crucial factor in managing different kinds of things in fuzzy environment. However, few related researches have been made to provided a reasonable solution to this demand. Therefore, how to measure degree of uncertainty of ordinal fuzzy sets is still an open issue. To address this issue, a novel ordinal relative fuzzy entropy is proposed in this paper taking orders of propositions into consideration in measuring level of uncertainty in fuzzy environment. Compared with previously proposed entropies, effects on degrees of fuzzy uncertainty brought by sequences of sequential propositions are embodied in values of measurement using proposed method in this article. Moreover, some numerical examples are offered to verify the correctness and validity of the proposed entropy. |

Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

通过对巴丹吉林沙漠周边及腹地进行野外调查采样，归纳出该区植被的生活型和群落类型，分析其植被多样性、优势度及均匀度指数，进而探讨该地区植被群落特征对土壤水分的响应。结果表明：（1）本次调查共记录到20科52属56种植物，分属于乔木、小乔木、灌木、小灌木、半灌木、草质藤本、多年生草本、一年生草本8类生活型，群落多以灌木和多年生草本植物为主，且多为沙漠旱生或超旱生多年生植物；（2）巴丹吉林沙漠群落整体生物多样性指数偏低，沙漠腹地湖泊周围物种丰富度和多样性指数相对较高，边缘地区较低，且灌木层在群落中占优势且分布均匀，草本层植被种类多样；（3）巴丹吉林沙漠土壤含水量普遍较低，超过61%的区域土壤含水量不足5%；土壤含水量与Simpson优势度指数（C）为极显著负相关，与Shannon-Winner多样性指数（H′）、Simpson多样性指数（D）、Alatato均匀度指数（Ea）均为极显著正相关，且Simpson优势度指数（C）、Shannon-Winner多样性指数（H′）、Simp?son多样性指数（D）对土壤水分的响应关系中均为立方函数拟合效果最好。 |

submitted time
2021-03-02
From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》
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Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

本文从符号与信息的角度，对混沌动力系统的特性进行了分析。提出了基于集合划分的信息熵传递特性，对连续动力系统引入有限测量精度假设，由此得出形成混沌的两个必要机制：信息由小尺度向宏观大尺度的转移及宏观信息的不断耗散，并进而对物理系统中的信息耗散进行分析讨论。 |

Quantum entanglement measurement based on belief entropy

Xue, Yige; Deng, YongSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Partial entropy entanglement is a very popular method to measure the entanglement of quantum systems, which is based on the classic von Neumann entropy. However, because of the problem of classical von Neumann entropy in measuring the uncertainty of quantum systems, the partial entropy entanglement is not efficient enough to measure the entanglement of quantum systems. The new entropy measure of quantum uncertainty is a model for measuring the uncertainty of a quantum system based on the classic von Neumann entropy and belief entropy, which has higher performance than the classic von Neumann entropy in measuring the uncertainty entropy of a quantum system.Based on the new entropy measure of quantum uncertainty and the classic partial entropy entanglement, this paper proposes a new model to measure the quantum entanglement measurement, named quantum entanglement measurement based on belief entropy. When the new entropy measure of quantum uncertainty degenerates to classical von Neumann entropy, the quantum entanglement measurement based on belief entropy will degenerate to classical partial entropy entanglement. Numerical examples are used to prove that quantum entanglement measurement based on belief entropy is more efficient and reliable in measuring the entanglement of quantum systems than the classic partial entropy entanglement. The experimental results show that the quantum entanglement measurement based on belief entropy can measure the uncertainty of quantum systems more efficiently and reliably than the classical classic partial entropy entanglement. |

A new entropy measure of quantum system uncertainty

Yige Xue; Yong DengSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Quantum theory is currently the most important research field. Before processing the information of a quantum system, we must first understand how to measure the uncertainty of a quantum system. Von Neumann entropy is a very classic method to measure the uncertainty of quantum systems. However, due to the particularity of quantum systems, it is very difficult to measure the uncertainty of quantum systems, so that the measurement efficiency of the classical von Neumann entropy is not high in some cases. Based on the classic von Neumann entropy and belief entropy, this paper proposes a new entropy model to measure the uncertainty of quantum systems, which can use fully the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the density matrix of quantum systems, and give the uncertainty of the quantum system. Some numerical examples are used to prove that the proposed entropy is more efficient and reliable in measuring quantum systems than the classical von Neumann entropy. The experimental results show that the proposed entropy can measure the uncertainty of quantum systems more efficiently and reliably than the classical von Neumann entropy. |

Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Urban topsoil is the most frequent interface between human society and natural environment. The accumulation of heavy metals in the urban topsoil has a direct effect on residents' life and health. The geochemical baseline of heavy metals is an objective description of the general level of heavy metals in the urban topsoil. Meanwhile, the determination of geochemical baseline is necessary for regional environmental management, especially in coal cities prone to heavy metal pollution. Heavy metal pollution has become an environmental problem in Fuxin City, China for a long time. To establish the geochemical baseline of heavy metals in the topsoil of Fuxin City and to evaluate the ecological risk of the topsoil, we collected 75 topsoil samples (0–20 cm) and analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As through X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We determined the geochemical baseline of heavy metals in the topsoil of Fuxin City by using iteration removal, box-whisker plot, cumulative frequency curve and reference metal normalization; evaluated the contamination risk and ecological risk of the topsoil by using the baseline factor index, Nemerow index and Hakanson potential ecological risk index; and identified the source category of heavy metals in the topsoil by using a pedigree clustering heatmap. Results showed that the geochemical baseline values were 42.86, 89.34, 92.23, 60.55, 145.21, 0.09, 0.08 and 4.17 mg/kg for Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As, respectively. The results of Nemerow index and Hakanson potential ecological risk index indicated that the urban topsoil in the study area was slightly contaminated and suffering low potential ecological risk. The main contaminated areas dominated in the middle part and northeast part of the study area, especially in the western Haizhou Strip Mine. The result of baseline factor index indicated that Hg and Cd were the major pollution elements. Using a pedigree clustering heatmap, we divided the sources of these heavy metals into three types: type I for Ni and Cr, largely represented the enrichment of heavy metals from natural sources; type II for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and As, mainly represented the enrichment of heavy metals from anthropogenic sources; and type III for Hg, represented the form of both natural and anthropogenic inputs. |

submitted time
2021-01-15
From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》
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Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

微波加热反应和传统加热反应相比有反应速度快、产率高等特点。微波反应中不同于传统加热的现象被称为“微波效应”。被观测到的微波效应包括热现象、热点现象、选择性加热等。理解和有效控制微波效应中的微波热点效应对理解和应用微波加热至关重要。基于我们2016年提出的微波反应量子态识别主方程模型，本文研究发现微波热点这种非线性现象的出现，宏观上与体系的温度的不均匀分布及微波强度有关，微观上与微波吸收导致的非平衡行为直接关联。本文建议可以通过预先加热反应容器中的空间局域点从而在该点诱发微波热点，也可以通过激发特定分子中的局域基团来诱导分子内热点的形成。可控微波热点效应有望应用在其它领域，本文的结论表明从量子态层面理解宏观非平衡和非线性行为的物理机制是必要的。 |

Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Efficient agricultural water use is crucial for food safety and water conservation on a global scale. To quantitatively investigate the agricultural water-use efficiency in regions exhibiting the complex agricultural structure, this study developed an indicator named water footprint of crop values (WFV) that is based on the water footprint of crop production. Defined as the water volume used to produce a unit price of crop (m3/CNY), the new indicator makes it feasible to directly compare the water footprint of different crops from an economic perspective, so as to comprehensively evaluate the water-use efficiency under the complex planting structure. On the basis of WFV, the study further proposed an indicator of structural water-use coefficient (SWUC), which is represented by the ratio of water-use efficiency for a given planting structure to the water efficiency for a reference crop and can quantitatively describe the impact of planting structure on agricultural water efficiency. Then, a case study was implemented in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The temporal and spatial variations of WFV were assessed for the planting industries in 14 prefectures and cities of Xinjiang between 1991 and 2015. In addition, contribution rate analysis of WFV for different prefectures and cities was conducted to evaluate the variations of WFV caused by different influencing factors: agricultural input, climatic factors, and planting structure. Results from these analyses indicated first that the average WFV of planting industries in Xinjiang significantly decreased from 0.293 m3/CNY in 1991 to 0.153 m3/CNY in 2015, corresponding to an average annual change rate of –3.532%. WFV in 13 prefectures and cities (with the exception of Karamay) has declined significantly during the period of 1991–2015, indicating that agricultural water-use efficient has effectively improved. Second, the average SWUC in Xinjiang decreased from 1.17 to 1.08 m3/CNY in the 1990s, and then declined to 1.00 m3/CNY in 2011–2015. The value of SWUC was highly consistent with the relative value of WFV in most prefectures and cities, showing that planting structure is one of the primary factors affecting regional agricultural water-use efficiency. Third, the contribution rate of WFV variations from human factors including agricultural input and planting structure was much more significant than that from climatic factors. However, the distribution of agricultural input and the adjustment of planting structure significantly differed among prefectures and cities, suggesting regional imbalances of agricultural development. This study indicated the feasibility and effectiveness of controlling agricultural water use through increasing technical input and rational selection of crops in the face of impending climate change. Specifically, we concluded that, the rational application of chemical fertilizers, the development of the fruit industry, and the strict restriction of the cotton industry should be implemented to improve the agricultural water-use efficiency in Xinjiang. |

submitted time
2020-10-20
From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》
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Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

[目的] 分析解决不确定性原理及量子理论在物理诠释方面的分歧。 [方法] 对海森堡不确定性原理数学关系式的原始推导、物理涵义以及爱因斯坦光子箱思想实验进行了重新检视分析，并考察了不同作用图景下该关系式的极限。 [结果] 在电磁作用图景下，通过对量子力学量的统计分布及其全概率空间的分析，首次获得了非统计诠释下的不确定性关系式在数学上被破坏的结果；利用傅里叶变换，导出了虚拟作用图景下相应共轭力学量的标准差约束关系式；通过考察电磁作用图景、引力作用图景以及虚拟作用图景所构成的集合，率先得到了微观量子客体力学状态的确定性判则；经过对爱因斯坦光子箱思想实验的重新检视分析，证伪了玻尔在索尔维会议上的论证结论。 [局限]未分析量子纠缠。 [结论] ①非统计诠释存在逻辑矛盾，不确定性关系、现行量子力学理论仅在统计诠释下，才能对微观量子客体在电磁作用图景中的力学状态作出恰当的描述；② 确定性判则显示，微观粒子的力学状态具有客观确定性，其波函数是对电磁作用图景下的微观粒子力学状态统计呈现相的表述；量子力学非统计诠释所指称的个体几率性实质是微观粒子与作用图景之间互作用统计呈现相的概率反映。 |

submitted time
2020-09-28
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On the description of particle system motion

吴峰Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Based on the concepts of infinitesimal and super real time-space composed of monads, the equations describing the particle flow are proposed. After the initial conditions are given, the state of the particle system at any time can be obtained by solving these equations. The physical properties of the granular matter, such as the moving velocity, the rotation angle, the angular velocity of rotation, the temperature, the pressure, the density, the mass, etc. at any time and space position are obtained. It is also to obtain that the translational motion is not dependent on rotation motion ofthe particles and can be separately analyzed. For a stationary particle system, theconditions that must be met by the force and force moment on the particles in thesystem are given. On this basis, the properties of the granular matter at rest can befurther explored for. |