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古脊椎动物学报 [Vertebrata PalAsiatica]

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  • ISSN:1000-3118
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出版信息

  • 出版时间:1957-
  • 出版者:中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所
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  • 总访问量:57596次
  • First histochemical examination of a Miocene ostrich eggshell with the oldest mineral-bound peptides

    关键词: 化石有机质; 生物矿化蛋白; 磷灰石; 磷酸盐化; 鸵鸟蛋壳; 古蛋白;

    DOI:DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.240329

    提交时间: 2024-04-03

    摘要:古蛋白质比古DNA具有更高的保存潜力,因此蛋白质组学研究可以帮助阐明一些超出 古DNA研究领域的灭绝生物群体的生物学特征。迄今为止最古老的多肽发现于中国西北地区晚中新世临夏盆地的鸵鸟蛋壳化石中,是与蛋壳矿化相关的蛋白质struthiocalcin (SCA-1) 的 一部分。前人认为SCA-1在蛋壳中均匀分布,并因其与方解石晶体结合的特性而得以在地 质历史中长时间保存。本次对同一鸵鸟蛋壳化石进行了组织学、扫描电子显微镜和拉曼光 谱分析,发现蛋壳内侧锥体层的晶核含有部分磷灰石,其他部位则完全由方解石构成;这 些晶核部分应当是在成岩作用过程中经历了磷酸盐化。在对该化石蛋壳样品脱钙处理后, 其锥体层晶核部分存在残留物,呈现网络状纤维结构,其位置和形态与现生鸵鸟蛋壳中脱 钙后残留的有机质相似。结果表明,该化石蛋壳中的古多肽可能集中保存在锥体层晶核 处,而非在整个蛋壳中均匀分布。磷酸盐化可能是另一个有利于有机物长期保存的埋藏过 程。临夏盆地的古气候和埋藏环境可能为该古蛋白分子的保存提供了有利的条件。建议在 未来研究中进行更深入的组织化学和矿物学分析,以进一步了解该盆地有机质和古蛋白的 保存机制。

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  • A taxonomical revision of ‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan Province

    关键词: 云南曲靖; 下泥盆统; 西山村组; 盔甲鱼类; 多鳃鱼科; 坝鱼属;

    DOI:DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.240321

    提交时间: 2024-03-22

    摘要:“曲靖东方鱼”(‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’)的归属长期以来存在争议,其最初被归入 东方鱼属(Dongfangaspis), 之后被归入宽甲鱼属(Laxaspis)。然而,由于宽甲鱼属模式种为 曲靖宽甲鱼(Laxaspis qujingensis), 这一分类学厘定又引起异物同名的问题。描述了来自云 南曲靖早泥盆世洛赫考夫期西山村组的“曲靖东方鱼”和变异坝鱼(Damaspis vartus)的新材 料。“曲靖东方鱼”在头甲长略大于宽,侧横管末端呈二分叉,V字型后眶上管不汇合,以 及至少7条侧横管从侧背管发出等方面与变异坝鱼高度相似。这些相似之处表明,相较于 宽甲鱼属和东方鱼属, “曲靖东方鱼”更接近坝鱼属。因此提出将“曲靖东方鱼”从宽甲鱼属 中移除,归入坝鱼属。新标本表明变异坝鱼多出来第5对长的侧横管是该种的一个鉴别特 征,而正型标本所呈现的非对称感觉管系统应为种内变异所造成。

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  • A taxonomical revision of ’Dongfangaspis qujingensis’from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan Province

    关键词: Qujing; Yunnan; Lower Devonian; Xishancun Formation; Damaspis; Polybranchiaspidae; Galeaspids;

    DOI:10.12074/202403.00264V1

    提交时间: 2024-03-21

    摘要:The affinity of ‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’, initially assigned to Dongfangaspis but later to Laxaspis, has long been controversial. However, the taxonomical revision raises a new problem of junior homonym since the type species of Laxaspis is L. qujingensis. Here, we describe some new materials of ‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’ and Damaspis vartus from the Xishancun Formation (early Lochkovian, Early Devonian) in Qujing, Yunnan Province. ‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’ strikingly resembles Damaspis vartus in the slightly longer headshield, bifurcated ends of the lateral transverse canals, unconnected V-shaped posterior supraorbital canals, and at least seven pairs of lateral transverse canals issuing from the lateral dorsal canal. These similarities indicate that ‘D. qujingensis’ is more suggestive of Damaspis than
    Dongfangaspis and Laxaspis. Therefore, we propose to remove ‘Dongfangaspis qujingensis’ from Laxaspis to Damaspis. The new specimens of Damaspis vartus reveal five long lateral transverse
    canals on the right side, corroborating that the asymmetric sensory canal system in the holotype is
    the intraspecific variation.

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  • A possible new amphicyonid from the Miocene of the Linxia Basin

    关键词: China; Amphicyonidae; Magericyon;

    DOI:10.12074/202403.00262V1

    提交时间: 2024-03-20

    摘要:Here we report a new form of amphicyonid from an uncertain locality in the Linxia Basin. The derived dental traits imply an affinity to Magericyon, previously known from Europe and possibly southern Asia. The specimen suggests a higher diversity of amphicyonids in eastern Asia than previously thought, and more discovery with stratigraphic information will be needed to elucidate the evolution of Amphicyonidae in eastern Asia.

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  • Taxonomic revision of Sinoeugnathus kueichowensis from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou and Yunnan, China

    关键词: Guizhou and Yunnan; Middle Triassic; Ionoscopiformes; Halecomorphi; osteology; phylogeny;

    DOI:10.12074/202403.00228V1

    提交时间: 2024-03-15

    摘要:The previously alleged ‘eugnathid amiiform’ Sinoeugnathus kueichowensis is a small-sized halecomorph from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) marine deposits of Guizhou and Yunnan, China. A morphological redescription and taxonomic revision of this taxon are provided based on a detailed examination of 15 new specimens. Among them, IVPP V24315 (standard length = 64 mm) is appointed as the neotype, given that the holotype is missing. Studies of these specimens revealed some morphological details previously undescribed or misidentified for this taxon, including a hatchet-shaped antorbital, two broad suborbitals, a sensory canal in the maxilla, and three pairs of extrascapulars. For the first time, Sinoeugnathus was incorporated into an analysis of halecomorph phylogeny, and the results recover it as the sister taxon of the Anisian Subortichthys from Luoping, Yunnan, and both are grouped with two Ladinian genera Allolepidotus and Eoeugnathus from the Monte San Giorgio area into a monophyletic group (namely Subortichthyidae fam. nov. herein) at the base of Ionoscopiformes. This taxonomic reassessment of Subortichthys provides new insights into the phylogeny and paleogeographic evolution of Ionoscopiformes.

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  • A restudy of Rhinocerotini fossils from the Miocene Jiulongkou Fauna of China

    关键词: Jiulongkou; Middle Miocene; Lartetotherium cixianensis; Rhinocerotini;

    DOI:10.12074/202403.00229V1

    提交时间: 2024-03-15

    摘要:All the extant rhino species belong to Rhinocerotini and either have one horn (a nasal horn) or two horns (a nasal horn and frontal horn). So far, the earliest Rhinocerotini to have been identified in China is the “Dicerorhinus” cixianensis, which was based on a juvenile skull with an associated mandible from the Middle Miocene locality of Jiulongkou in Cixian County, Hebei Province of northern China. Our analyses suggest that there are similarities between this specimen and the modern genus, Dicerorhinus, but it differs in several cranial traits and therefore cannot be assigned to the modern genus. Instead, it is closer to the Middle Miocene Lartetotherium from Europe, especially the specimen from La Retama in Spain and should be assigned to that genus, indicating the presence of intracontinental dispersal at this time. The Jiulongkou fauna is the only Middle Miocene fauna with Rhinocerotini in China, and, together with the faunal composition, this implies a more humid and closed environment, in contrast to those found in western China. We suggest that the position of the posterior border of the nasal notch is a good indication of the specimen’s evolutionary level in Rhinocerotini. The anterior position of the nasal notch as seen in modern Dicerorhinus, together with its certain similarities to L. cixianensis as well as its differences with more specialized species of the Dihoplus-Pliorhinus-Stephanorhinus -Coelodonta lineage, supports the conclusion that Dicerorhinus experienced little change during a nearly 10 Myr evolutionary history, possibly due to the low selection pressure seen in the tropical/subtropical forests in southeastern Asia. 

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  • First report of Hispanodorcas from the Late Miocene of China

    关键词: 庆阳; 东亚; 保德期; 羚羊族; 三趾马动物群; 西班牙羚;

    DOI:DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.240123

    提交时间: 2024-01-28

    摘要:西班牙羚(Hispanodorcas)是一类中小型牛科动物,此前只在泛地中海地区和南亚有 所发现。西班牙羚的分类一直有所争议,曾被认为与羚羊族(Antilopini), 苇羚族(Reduncini) 或角羊族(Oiocerini)有关。报道了在中国庆阳正宁地区的代店化石点首次发现的陇东西班 牙羚新种(H. longdongica sp. nov.), 时代大约为早保德期(约8–7百万年前)。新材料包括5个头 骨,保存状态各异,提供了迄今为止关于西班牙羚最完整的骨骼信息。其角心长而细、向 后弯曲,且微弱地同向扭曲(homonymous twist); 角心同时还具有和外–背侧沟和内–腹沟, 这些都是西班牙羚的典型特征。代店地点发现的西班牙羚在已知各种中体型最小,面部和 脑颅之间的弯曲较弱,前后基结节均发育较弱。这些原始的特征表明陇东西班牙羚可能代表了这个属的早期演化阶段。此外,该种头骨与瞪羚(Gazella)的相似之处表明西班牙羚可 能是直接从瞪羚的祖先演化而来,其同向扭转的角心与角羊族一致,可能是两者平行演化 所致。

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  • New suoid remains (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene of Haritalyangar, India

    关键词: 中西瓦利克; 晚中新世; 猪超科; 云南猪属; 原河猪属; 河马齿河猪属;

    DOI:doi: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.231120

    提交时间: 2023-11-30

    摘要:描述了印度北部比拉斯布尔区喜马偕尔邦Haritalyangar地区中西瓦利克的猪类化石 上、下颌及牙齿材料。Haritalyangar地区以晚中新世动物群、古人类和其他灵长类动物的 多样性而闻名。研究材料为作者之一(ARS)在该地区多次野外季采集的猪类化石;猪类化 石地点和最近报道的长鼻类化石地点(含古猿化石地点)也被绘制在地图上。这些化石地点 广泛分布于Makkan Khad到 Sir Khad区域内的“Lower Alternations”层和“Upper Alternations” 层。猪类化石被鉴定为三个属:Propotamochoerus (P. hysudricus)、Hippopotamodon (H. sivalense) 和Yunnanochoerus (Y. dangari)。 Propotamochoerus hysudricus 为中西瓦利克最 常见的化石猪类,新发现的Yunnanochoerus dangari化石进一步证明这种古猪类化石仅在 Haritalyangar地区有少量遗存。Haritalyangar地区新发现的猪类化石组成与巴基斯坦的Nagri 动物群相近。基于猪类化石进行的的Potwar高原年代地层学对比表明,Haritalyangar地区的 “Lower Alternations”层的年龄范围为~10–9 Ma, 与最新的磁极性地层学年代范围很接近。

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  • Micromammal Fossils from the basal part of the Jiaozigou Formation in Yagou area, Linxia Basin, Gansu Province

    关键词: Yagou; Linxia; Gansu; Late Oligocene; Jiaozigou Formation; micromammal fossils;

    DOI:DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.230927

    提交时间: 2023-10-13

    摘要:Renewed fieldwork in 2003 produced a rich micromammal assemblage from the basal part of the Jiaozigou Formation in the Yagou area of Linxia Basin. 17 genera distributed among 13 families of three orders were recovered. The micromammal fauna is a typical Oligocene assemblage for Central and Eastern Asia. 14 genera (~82% of the fauna) are common in the Oligocene of Asia. Of them four genera and four species of Eucricetodon are restricted to the Oligocene, one genus (Bagacricetodon) is restricted to Late Oligocene and Glis and Eomyodon made their first appearances in the Late Oligocene. Based on this micromammal composition, the basal part of the Jiaozigou Formation in the Yagou area could be mainly of Late Oligocene in age, which is in accordance with the conclusion based on large mammal fossils. In comparison with the other Late Oligocene micromammal faunas in Central and East Asia, the Yagou Fauna is slightly older than the Ulan III biozone of Nei Mongol and biozone C of Mongolia, because it has two Eocene genera and lacks more advanced genera. This is roughly in accordance with the recent palaeomagnetic interpretation for the Maogou section, where the lower boundary of the Jiaozigou Formation was correlated with Chron C10r (~29 Ma). The presence of large number of xerophilous zapodines, ctenodactylids, cricetids and lagomorphs combined with fossorial Tsaganomys and the lithology of the fossil-bearing deposits, composed of gypsiferous reddish brown mudstone, tend to show a semiarid woodland-shrubland habitat during the Late Oligocene in Yagou area. In Late Oligocene more frequent faunal interchange might have occurred between Asia and Europe (4 genera commonly shared) rather than between Asia and America (only 1 genus shared), partly because of the disappearance of the Turgai Strait.

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  • Reassessment of Trilophodon connexus Hopwood, 1935 and attributing it to the Choerolophodontidae

    关键词: 中新世; 嵌齿象; 颌门齿象; 豕棱齿象; 长鼻类;

    DOI:10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.230917

    提交时间: 2023-09-20

    摘要:间型三棱齿象(Trilophodon connexus Hopwood, 1935)长期以来被认为是中国嵌齿象属 (Gomphotherium)的一个代表种。然而,由于其下颌联合部与下门齿的形态未知,这一归入 存疑。重新研究了来自新疆准噶尔盆地北缘乌伦古河地区哈拉玛盖组的一件此前归为陕西嵌齿象相似种(Gomphotherium cf. G. shensiensis)的下颌。该下颌联合部伸长,呈深槽状, 下门齿缺失,因此确定可归入豕棱齿象科(Choerolophodontidae)。进一步将间型三棱齿象 的正型标本与其相比较,两者颊齿的关键特征完全一致,包括:高度丘型化,m3伸长, 具有四脊,上下颊齿第二脊“人字型”(chevron)很弱,第二脊中附锥与前中心小尖不愈合, 釉质褶皱、齿谷中小锥及白垩质发育弱或缺失。因此,间型三棱齿象事实上是一种豕棱齿 象类而非嵌齿象。综上所述,暂将其改定为间型“豕棱齿象” (“Choerolophodon” connexus (Hopwood, 1935))。同时,以上特征与北美的索普颌门齿象(Gnathabelodon thorpei)比较接 近。此外,在颌门齿象属和间型“豕棱齿象”中,颊齿第二脊呈“人字型”, 釉质褶皱、齿谷中 小锥及白垩质发育强这些典型的豕棱齿象属(Choerolophodon)的特征较弱甚至缺失,但m3 齿脊数变多,这表明颌门齿象属可能起源于东亚的间型“豕棱齿象”。

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